- Section 377
Section 377 of the Indian penal code defines unnatural offences. It is rooted in the legacies of British colonial states where in it was introduced by Lord Macaulay in 1860 as a part of IPC.
Section 377 of IPC states that whoever, voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine or in simple words any form of unnatural sex such as homosexuality etc. is criminalized in India.
The Delhi High Court in Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT of Delhi (2009) rightly held that criminalising sexual activities with consent in private not only impairs the dignity of those persons targeted by the law, but it is also discriminatory and impacts the health of those people.
The top court had set aside a historic Delhi High Court judgment that had decriminalized homosexuality.
Supreme Court, in Suresh Kumar Koushal v. Naz Foundation (2013) case, set aside the Delhi High Court judgment and said that homosexuality or unnatural sex between two consenting adults under Section 377 of IPC is illegal and will continue to be an offense. The court said that Section 377 did not suffer from any “constitutional infirmity”.
- UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Commission)
- The UNHRC was established in 2006, as part of the UN’s reform process, replacing the Commission on Human Rights.
- The headquarters of UNHRC is in Geneva, Switzerland
- The members of the General Assembly elect the members who occupy the UNHRC’s 47 seats. The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms
- The General Assembly can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership
- The UNHRC investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in UN member states and addresses important thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women’s rights, LGBT rights, and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities
SAFTA refers to the “Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)”. This agreement was reached in 2004 in the 12th SAARC summit at Islamabad. The objective was to create a free trade area comprising Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
SAPTA was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) leading to a Customs Union, Common Market & Economic Union.
In the 14th SAARC summit Afganisthan became 8th member of SAARC.
The members of SAFTA include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Wolbachia are natural bacteria present in up to 60% of insect species, including some mosquitoes. However, Wolbachia is not usually found in the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the primary species responsible for transmitting human viruses such as Zika, dengue and chikungunya. When introduced into the Aedes aegypti mosquito, Wolbachia can help to reduce the transmission of these viruses to people.
When the male mosquitoes with wolbachia mate with wild female mosquitoes without Wolbachia, they are unable to reproduce. This technique requires the release of a large number of male mosquitoes to reduce the overall mosquito population
- CEPA(Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement)
- The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) is a free trade agreement between India and South Korea
- The agreement was signed on August 7, 2009
- The agreement was aimed at easing restrictions on foreign direct investments and provide better access for the Indian service industry in South Korea