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My Notes- 05JAN2016 05-01-2016

Terrorist attacks

  • Pathankot terror and attack on Indian consulate at the Mazar-i-Sharif shows the desperation of the non-state actors and dissident elements in the Pakistan military establishment to derail the dialogue process. India wisely differentiated between the Pakistan Government and non-state actors.

In this context, if history is observed, the talks and terrorism almost have gone together since the composite dialogue started in 1997. It also led to the suspension of dialogue and only to be resumed later. It had given a veto to the fringe elements on the dialogue process.

There is also a continuing myth that Pakistan’s military is a monolith. But, there is an army with in army who support the jihadi elements. Pakistan is also victim of such attacks. Pakistan’s democratic forces shall get strengthened to counter these elements.

What India shall do

1)      Pakistan Government shall be engaged not just bilaterally but multilaterally and shall push for bringing terror elements to justice.

2)      People of both the sides shall be taken in to confidence

3)      National security doctrine and national security strategy – It provides for a stability and permanency to the strategy, in spite of change in government of the day. Existing Adhocism made the security response is linked to the likings and disliking’s of the Government of the day. The intelligence systems shall be well coordinate with cohesive command and control structure.  It also shall cover non-state actors who are becoming a major threat to the sovereignty across the world.

Non Alignment to Multi alignment

Non alignment served India’s interest during the cold war era and it generated a climate of trust for India and made it acceptable to the world. As the situations changed, India is also shifting to multilateralism engaging all the major powers to serve its national interests. Recent engagements of India are a typical example of this. It shows the maturity, vision of our diplomatic establishment to accommodate divergent interests and find constructive solutions to the pending issues.

India – USA

Defence Minister Manohar Panikkars visit to USA

1)      Progress is made on CISMOA, LSA and it can take forward the DTTI (defence technology and trade initiative to a new level.

2)      C-17 Boeing P – 8I maritime patrol aircraft, c-17 Globemaster –III airlift aircraft, M777 ultralight howitzers.

Russia visit

Energy – India got 10% of stake in Russian oil company Rosneft and defence deals are signed for Kamov 226 T , MI-17 helicopters, triumph air missile defence system. Kamov 226T will be manufactured in India with an Indian partner.

India – Japan

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visit to India

The most important part is Japans willingness to cooperate on peaceful nuclear energy and to subtle acknowledgement of India as a reliable and trustworthy nuclear power.

Both the countries also issued a joint statement on emerging threats in Indo pacific and need to maintain freedom of navigation.

High speed rail between Mumbai and Ahmedabad has received a soft loan from Japan.

India- Pakistan

PM Lahore visit developed a necessary good will but India shall not be complacent and its security establishment shall be put to alert. It is very much stressed by the Prime minister in the combined commanders conference on INS Vikramaditya.

India’s strategy to isolate the Pakistan on the international forums on terrorism is also not very assuring. America considers Pakistan as an important partner in south Asian strategy and for stabilization of Afghanistan. Recent supply of F16 jets, extension of coalition fund, joint statement during the Sharif’s visit to USA on Jammu and Kashmir are a reflection of this. Chinas liberal financing under its CPEC also made it financially strong. So, an assertive Pakistan with a strong military can be more dangerous to India’s national security.

 

Japan – Russia relations

Kuril Islands

The island chain known as the Kurils stretches north across the Pacific Ocean from the Japanese island of Hokkaido to the southern tip of Russia s Kamchatka Peninsula.

Four islands - which Russia calls the Southern Kurils and Japan calls the Northern Territories - are the subject of a 60-year-old dispute between the two nations.

They are Kunashir (known in Japanese as Kunashiri), Iturup (Etorofu), Shikotan and the rocky Habomai islets.

Because of the dispute, Russia and Japan have not yet signed a peace treaty to end World War II.

History

Japanese people migrated north to the islands in the 18th and 19th century, including members of Hokkaido s minority Ainu community.

 

In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which gave Japan ownership of the four southern islands and Russia ownership of everything to the north.

Communities developed on three of the islands and by the time World War II began, there were 17,000 Japanese residents.

Russia took control of the islands at the end of the war, and by 1949 it had deported all residents to Japan.

Under the 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed between the Allies and Japan, Japan renounced "all right, title and claim to the Kuril Islands", as well as over other possessions.

But this resolved nothing, because Russia did not sign the treaty and the Japanese government has never recognised the four islands as part of the Kuril chain.

In 1956, the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration restored diplomatic ties between the two nations, but a formal peace deal remained out of reach because of the territorial dispute.

At the time, Russia proposed returning the two islands closest to Japan, a deal Japan rejected, in part because the two islands represent only 7% of the land in question.

Since then, the dispute has remained unresolved.

Natural resources

A 30,000-strong Russian community now lives on the islands and there is also a Russian military presence on Iturup.

In early August 2006, the Russian government backed a 17bn-rouble ($630m) plan to develop the entire Kuril island chain, including improving energy and transport infrastructure.

Chances of an early resolution to the dispute look slim.

Vladimir Putin indicated in 2004 that the offer of a return of the two southernmost islands was still on the table, but showed no signs of relinquishing the two larger islands.

Natural resources are part of the reason.

The islands are surrounded by rich fishing grounds and are thought to have offshore reserves of oil and gas. Rare rhenium and thorium  deposits have been found on the Kudriavy volcano on Iturup.

Tourism is also a potential source of income, as the islands have several volcanoes and a variety of birdlife.

Meanwhile, the Japanese government has worked to maintain public awareness of the dispute.

Periodic visits by relatives of those displaced after the war to pray before their ancestral shrines have made the issue a highly emotive one for the Japanese public.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-11664434

Rail regulatory authority

The rail development authority will be created as an independent authority by executive resolution, funded through annual railway budget.

Functions

Tariff regulator

Level playing field for investors

Note – Cross subsidization of passenger traffic has increased the costs of the freight traffic and reduced the share of railways in freight traffic from 89% in 50-51 to 36% in 07-08

BCCI – Lodha committee report

Separate notes will be provided.

Question

1)      Non Alignment served the India’s utility in the cold war era but, its utility now is questionable. Do you think India’s shift to Multilateralism is the need of the hour? Discuss

 

 

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