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My Notes 23 Sep 2016 30-11--0001

Dear Students:

Please Follow My Notes and My Video 23 September 2016


Getting railways on Track.

The reasons stated for the merger of railway budget with general budget are

  1. Indian railway Need not pay annual dividend on the the budgetary support given by  government of India. It saves railways 10,000cr rupees annually.
  2. Separate railway budget is misused by the politicians as a populist platform to enhance their own image. Reluctance to increase the passenger prices skewed the tariff prices and railways is losing freight to road transport. Now, economic rational decisions will prevail. 
  3. No other ministry has a separate budget and the practice exists in no other country today.
  4. Railways share in the general budget has progressively reduced over the years, making separate budget an anarchism. In 1924, railway expenditure is higher than all other expenditure of the government of India put to gather. Today it forms only 6% of the total budget.
  5. Recently. there is fall in revenues, increased expenditure and market borrowings for developing the railways. It needs higher budget allocations. 


On the other side

  1. Railways is the only department solely concerned with commercial operations.
  2. It is the department that earns besides spending.
  3. Railway budget provides an opportunity for the parliament to scrutinize in detail the functioning of the department.
  4. Gross earnings of railways stand at 1.68 lakh Crore not comparable to any dept.
  5. It has the highest staff strength and it fully meets the pension liabilities of its employees.

1n 1924, Ac worth committee first recommended for the separation of Railway budget from the general budget. It was seen as a commercial activity funded by British government and dividends need to be paid to the share holders. The designation of railways as a commercial activity still stays.


  1. The decision would end the autonomy of the largest public carrier in the country.
  2. Merger can be seen as a move towards privatization.


A pirouette  on  Pakistan

India has no consistent policy against Pakistan. It has flipped and flopped on dialogue with Pakistan. Lack of this consistency is creating confusion among the nations supporting India.

Added to that, consistent dialogue between India and Pakistan is the most provocation for the terror elements. Terror attacks every time have disrupted the dialogue process.

PM Modi has also made a statement about Pakistan’s link to violence in Kashmir. As India is rising the terrorism  at international forums, Pakistan is trying to internationalise  the Kashmir issue and an hyphenation is happening between India and Pakistan.


Giving Africa it s due

As per the population reference Bureau, the increase in population in the coming decades will be in the African continent. It shall not be a great concern for the world, as  the share of the global resources used by the Africa till date are very meagre. So, contraceptives if have to be suggested for the women of Africa, the reasons shall be autonomy, health and human rights. The sole purpose shall not be population control.


Something for everyone

GST council has a responsibility to bring in a unified tax system for a Nation that has economically diverse states. Accommodating the interests of all the states is a daunting task before the GST council.

  1. Revenue neutral rate – Among the diverse states, identifying a revenue neutral rate that causes no loss for any state is almost impossible. So, it is better to guarntee minimum amount of GST revenues.
  2. Higher GST rate will also affect the poor as Identification and exemption of the tax on the goods used by the poor people is not completely possible.
  3. Rates shall be kept Simple for administration.
  4. Exempted products from the scope of GST shall be kept to minimum.
  5. Incentivise states for GST collection.



India – Pakistan

India claims diplomatic win over Pakistan at UN

India gave a fitting reply to Pakistan from the UNGA. Afghanistan also supported India in calling Pakistan a terror state.


Rafale deal

India and France defence ministers are finally signing an agreement for the purchase of 36 rafale fighter jets.

Rafale Jet – It has beyond visual range air to air missile 2. It has an Israeli helmet mounted display.


Question of the day

GST bill though passed in the parliament, the real challenge lies ahead in its operationalisation. Discuss. 


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