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My Notes 15 Dec 2016 15-12-2016

Dear Students:

Please Follow My Notes and My Video 15-DEC-2016

http://laex.in/civilsprep/upsc-ias-the-hindu-and-indian-express-current-affairs-15-december-2016-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2/

  1. What do you understand by the following and discuss their impact on Tribals?

a)      Free informed consent

b)      Mines and minerals(development and regulation act

c)      Compensatory afforestation act

d)      Samata judgement

e)      Niyamgiri Judgement

  1. What are the ways Government is trying to undermine forest rights act?
  2. What are the rights stated under forest rights act?

Demonetisation’sdeflationary shock?

  1. Do you think demonetisation has an impact on prices of goods? What are worst affected?
  2. Why Monetary policy committee kept the rates intact?

 

 

Rights for the rightful owners

Forest rights act was enacted by the parliament to give legal recognition to the rights of the tribals and other forest dwellers settled in the forest. Other than tribal people (other traditional forest dwellers shall be residing and making livelihood on the forests for 3 generations or 75 years). But, Governments have tried to weaken the implementation of law from time to time. These are

  1. In Telangana, Tamil Nadu Government has illegalised traditional methods of forest land cultivation.
  2. Maharashtra Government is subverting the role of Gram Sabha by giving powers of forest management  to village committees.
  3. Diversion of forest lands for various Mining, developmental work has been given freely.
  4. Land pattas are not being issued by the Government for recognition of land rights.

 

Demonetisation’sdeflationary shock?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What does FPIC mean to forest peoples?

implies informed, non-coercive negotiations between investors, companies or governments and indigenous peoples prior to the development and establishment of oil palm estates, timber plantations or other enterprises on their customary lands. This principle means that those who wish to use the customary lands belonging to indigenous communities must enter into negotiations with them. It is the communities who have the right to decide whether they will agree to the project or not once they have a full and accurate understanding of the implications of the project on them and their customary land. As most commonly interpreted, the right to FPIC is meant to allow for indigenous peoples to reach consensus and make decisions according to their customary systems of decision-making.

 

Samata Judgement

The Judgement declared that the Government is also a "Person" and that:

All lands leased to private mining companies in the scheduled areas are null and void.

Some features of the judgement are:

  1. By the the Constitution [73rd Amendment] Act, 1992 ....

every Gram Sabha shall be competent to safeguard and preserve...community resources". .....

  1. clause (m) (iii) the power to prevent alienation of land in the Scheduled Areas and to take appropriate action to restore any unlawful alienation of land of a Scheduled Tribe ...

 

A) Minerals to be exploited by tribals themselves either individually or through cooperative societies with financial assistance of the State.

 

B)  At least 20% of the profits as permanent fund for development needs apart from reforestation and maintenance of ecology.

C)  Transfer of land in Scheduled Area by way of lease to non-tribals, corporation aggregate, etc stands prohibited.

D) renewal of lease is fresh grant of lease and therefore, any transfer stands prohibited.

Transfer of mining lease to non-tribals, company, corporation aggregate or partnership firm etc is unconstitutional, void and inoperative. State instrumentality s like APMDC stands excluded from prohibition.

 

Niyamgiri judgement

The Supreme Court order in the case, endorsing the rights of tribals under the Forest Rights Act and the Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act to make fresh claims and designating the gram sabhas as the competent fora to decide them, should end strong arm measures against defenceless communities. It is beyond doubt that there is an organic connection between tribals and the land, and this has been accepted by the Supreme Court in another case in 1997. That bond must be respected.

 

 

 

 

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