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My Notes 08-Feb-2017 08-02-2017

Dear Students:

Please Follow My Notes and my Video 08-Feb-2017

http://laex.in/civilsprep/upsc-ias-the-hindu-and-indian-express-current-affairs-08-feb-2017-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2/

Uneasy lies ahead

  1. Tamil Nadu politics are centred around a leader who centralises power. There is a reason in political economy that is a strong leader can ensure the welfare benefits to reach to bottom. If power is dispersed, welfare benefits gets hijacked by local factions and bosses.
  2. Caste politics are another reason for growth of centralised leadership. A strong central leadership ensures unity among castes. It has become the part of most of the regional parties in India.

Leadership – leadership comes from functionality, personality and situation. Jallikattu movement has provided an opportunity for Ms Sasi Kala to exhibit her leadership. Which she failed to utilise.

 

NEET

NEET – National eligibility cum entrance test is a common entrance test for all medical students at under graduation and post graduation admissions. The major objections to NEET are

  1. States do not have a common syllabus.
  2. It may go against reservation policy existing in states.
  3. It can go against to the interests of rural students.
  4. It will not suit with the wide economic, linguistic and social diversity existing across country.

On the other hand, NEET helps to promote uniformity, rescue from multiple entrance tests students has to face, a fair and transparent admission system.

In this scenario, Tamil Nadu assembly passed a law to self exempt itself from NEET. It has to be reserved for president assent by governor as it goes against to the laws of parliament and Judgement of Supreme Court.

 

Perspective

Pride as well as prejudice

Art 371A provides for protections to Nagaland from parliamentary laws in the spheres of

  1. Religious or social practices of Nagas
  2. Naga customary law and procedure
  3. Administration of civil and criminal Justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law.
  4. Ownership and transfer of land and its resources

In the above if parliament passes any law, it need to be approved by State legislative assembly  of Nagaland. But, constitutional laws will apply to Nagaland with out any restrictions.

PartIX and IXA of the constitution has created for Urban local bodies with 1/3 reservations for women -

Art 243 M clearly states that Part IX will not be applicable to Nagaland. But 243ZC of Part IXA do not state the same.

Note – tribal bodies are not recognised by constitution (Art 371A). Only legislative Assembly was recognised.

Timeline

June 2011 – Kohima bench of Gauhati high court ordered for conduct of municipal elections.

Sep 2012 – state assembly passed a resolution that women reservations in urban local bodies (243T) infringes on the social and customary practices of Nagas.

April 2016 – SC upheld the Judgement of Kohima Bench of Gauhati high court.

Nagaland enacted the Nagaland Municipal (third amendment) bill 2016 and it paved way for women reservations in Urban local bodies. Election are announced.

Now, Nagaland govt has decided to write to the central government demanding Nagaland shall be exempted from part IXA of the constitution.

 

Way froward

Reservation  for  women  is  necessary in  patriarchal  societies  like  Naga  society,  for  instance,  where  there  is  a  historical  culture  of  inequalities  even  though Nagas  don’t  practise  sati,  female  foeticide  and  infanticide,  and  do  not  believe in  dowry  or  the  caste  system.  But  Naga customs,  culture  and  traditions  preclude  women  from  inheriting  land  and participating  in  the  decision-making process,  which  is  exactly  what  Article 371(A)  protects.

 

Looking  towards  Africa

  1. Africa provides for majority of UN peace keepers.
  2. Continent is the fastest growing and has youngest population. World can gain from development of Africa.
  3. The focus shall be on Prevention of conflict, violence, disease and inclusive sustainable development. 

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