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My Notes 20-March-2017 20-03-2017

Dear Students:

Please Follow My Notes and My Video 20-March-2017

20 march 2017


The fundamental question here is – Is India shifting towards majoritarianism? Is electoral democracy able to hold the constitutional values prescribed to promote substantive democracy?

Dr B R Ambedkar has stated that Democracy in India is only a top dressing on an Indian soil which is essentially undemocratic. But, Nehruvian era has made efforts to deepen its roots to make it representative. Later, it spread out with strong Judiciary, democratic institutions to protect minorities, dalits, tribals, free speech and dissent. But today major challenges to democracy are

  1. Religious Polarization: It reduces constitutional democracy to a rule by majority. It mean In Indian democracy is turning itself in to a phase - all citizens are constitutionally equal but not politically. It needs serious corrections to our electoral democracy.
  2. Weakening of representativeness: first pass the post system has given unique advantage to the majority to occupy the representative houses.


Article :   The making of a sultan

Context : Constitutional reform in Turkey

Question to think : Are constitutional reforms in Turkey a recipe for a sultanate with out a throne?

Notes : A constitutional reform is underway in Turkey to convert it in to a presidential system. It mean that president Erdogan will be head of the Government, state, ruling party and has powers to appoint Judges. He also gets another two terms as president – till 2029 if constitutional changes pass  referendum.

Erdogan’s AKP party presents itself as a conservative, political force with a liberal economic outlook. Its promise is stability and development. It initiated pro market reforms that have led to growth of  economy and a new middle class. This class has become a strong supporter of reform.

It is disturbing a balance  between secular and conservative views in Turkey’s power establishment. There are growing tensions between secular, old Kemalist order represented by its military and new order of conservative AKP. The failed coup in 2016 have strengthen hands of Erdogan for a constitutional reform. Once reforms are passed, he will become most powerful president in the world.


Article : Last gasp tasks

Context : determination of GST rates for various products

Question to think : what are the left over issues in progress towards GST in India?

Notes : GST council has agreed for 5 different slabs of rates at 0%,5%,12%,18%,28%

With an added cess on sin goods. Now the major challenge is to apply these slabs to various products. Industrial lobbies and states  will try to influence the rate to a lower side on their products.

Another issues for the industry is GST’s Penal anti profiteering clauses. These are too vague at present point of time.




Terms to remember

Hecklers veto : Theheckler’s veto,accordingtolegal scholars,isaprocessbywhichsociallypowerfulgroupscanshutdowncriticalor inconvenientspeechbythreateningpublicdisorderordisturbance.



  1. Yogi adityanath is the new CM of UP.
  2. Teja s – India’s Indigenously manufactured LCA is expected to replace MiG by 2024.
  3.  CJI states that legal services authorities are harbingers of Justice for all.
  4. Government is planning for a rights based social security framework in India.




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