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My Notes 22-March-2017 30-11--0001

Dear Students:

Please Follow My Notes and My Video 22-March-2017


Article : Abriefhistoryofthepast70years

Context: weakening of the role of opposition in India

Question to think : what is the legacy of Pandit Nehru era  to Indian democracy and what present day opposition can learn form the same>


In west minister model of government, opposition is equally important as government. Dispersion of power requires a strong opposition at the centre. India functioned as a single party majority system for the first three decades as congress was only the dominant party. Political parties become complacent when there is no opposition. Across the states, where political competition existed they made a good progress. Ex – Kerala, Haryana, Tamil Nadu.

So, weakening of congress is not good for democratic politics.

Nehru has spoken of independence as essentially an opportunity for ending poverty, ignorance , disease and inequality of opportunity. He is also an ardent supporter of secularism. His commitment to safeguard rights of minorities was unparalleled. Unlike this during indira Gandhi era rights of minorities are exchanged for empowerment of clergy. Shah bano incident during rajiv Gandhi era is an example of this.

After Nehruvian era, decisive moment that changed History of India was the rao Manmohan decision to liberalize economy and to bring country out of financial clutches. If we can take a glance at  post communist Russia, we can understand how big this achievement is.

So, congress can take a clue from the above to rebuild itself as a strong opposition.

Take home points :



Article :what goes around must come around

Context : recycling of waste water

Question to think : what are the advantages India can have on recycling of resources?

Notes :
2017 United Nations water development programmes world water development report takes about waste water: the untapped resource.

Water is a scarce resource and untapped waste water will pose a threat to human health and aquatic eco systems. As world is moving towards urbanization, this challenge is becoming acute. Socio economic factors play an important role in access to sanitation.

Along with human costs there are enormous economic stakes involved in effective management of waste water. For every $1 spent on sanitation society benefits by an estimated $5.5.

Singapore is using reclaimed water branded Newaterto serve up to 30% of its needs. It benefitted water starved country for food production and industrial development. SDGs specifically mention about sanitation.local governments shall play an important role.

Take home points : circular economy

A circular economy is one in which economic development and environment sustainability are interdependent with a strong emphasis on minimizing pollution while maximizing reuse and recycling.


Article : Managing Manipur

Context : recent elections in Manipur and formation of Government

Questions to think : in case of hung assembly what is the role of gocernor?


Though congress emerged as a single largest party in Manipur, BJP is able to form a coalition government. Governor did not call a single largest party but gave a choice to BJP led coalition not form Government. It is a deviation from established norms.

Challenges ahead

  1. Managing coalition is going to be a complicated task for BJP. As the number of ministerial berths are limited to 12, most of them are expected to be taken away by coalition partners.
  2. Division of districts and Nagas agitation can pose challenges. But on positive side United naga council has ended Blockade of Manipur.

Take home points:

91st AA limits number of ministerial berths to 12 in Manipur.


Article : India slips in Human developmental Index

Context :HDR 2016

Questions to think : what is the status of India in various developmental parameters.?


India slipped one point in human development report 2016 from 130 to 131 among 188 countries. It is in the medium human development category with a value of .624. In South Asia it is in 3rd position after srilanka and Maldives. India is lowest among the BRICS countries.


  1. Low public health spending
  2. Gender disparities

Take home points:

  1. 1.      InSouthAsia,gendergapsinentrepreneurshipandlabourforceparticipationcausedanestimatedincomelossof19%.
  2. 2.      Thereport praisedIndia’sreservationpolicy,observingthateventhoughit“hasnotremediedcaste-based exclusions”,ithas“hadsubstantialpositiveeffects”.Itpointedoutthat“in1965,forexample,Dalitsheldfewerthan2%ofseniorcivil servicepositions,butthesharehadgrownto11%by2001”.
  3. 3.      Rural employment program is is quoted as a prime example of combining social protection with appropriate employment strategies.




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