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My Notes 26-April-2017 26-04-2017

Dear Students,

Please Follow My Notes and My Video 26-April-2017.

26 April 2017 The Hindu by LAEXCELLENCE IAS.

Article: Hedging bets as Trump scouts for deals

Context:  India – USA relations under Trump

Notes: India-USA relations have reached to new heights during Obama era. India was seen from a geo strategic dimension and as central to Asia pivot policy. In accordance with this, India is been declared as a major defence partner.

President Trumps priorities to the regions are still not clear. If we go by election rhetoric, he is interested protection of USA trade interests rather than asserting role of the USA as a super power.

There are mixed signals from the actions taken by president Trump. Attack on syria, re approaches to with china, reversals on NATO are different from his election rhetoric. On the other side, his restrictions on visas, withdrawal from Trans pacific partnership, Paris climate change are sending  conflicting signals.

Coming to India – USA relations following observations can be made.

  1. India – USA relations under Mr.Modi and Mr. Trump will develop under the bilateral and collateral impact of American ties especially with China and Pakistan. USA can not keep itself away from Afghanistan and so USA has limited leverage in shaping Pakistan behaviour.
  2. USA can expect more trade concessions, Market access, intellectual protection norms form India.

USA has already showed an interest on India – Pakistan issues. India has a reason to be concerned.

To remember :Asia pivot policy of president Obama, major defence partner status, NATO.

Carry home points:

  1. 1.       Trump administration did not carve itself a road for its relations with India. The existing architecture is expected to be disturbed. It can be a concern for India if USA plans its south Asian strategy from the lens of Afghanistan and syrian crisis.
  2. 2.       Major contentious can be related to trade, IPR and visas.


Article: The expanding universe of IP

Context: IPR and Data Exclusivity provisions under RCEP and TPP

Notes: Data exclusivity prevents drug regulators from referring to or relying on data submitted by an originator company relating to a drug’s safety and efficacy while approving bio-equivalent versions of the same drug, i.e. therapeutically equivalent generics and biosimilarsfor a fixedperiod of time.

It can be harmful to Indian pharma industry and health care  for the following reasons.

  1. It severely limits development of generics.  Generics depend on originators data to prove bio equivalence. If its access is excluded, entire cycle of clinical trials need to be repeated. It also makes Health care costs prohibitively expensive.
  2. In a way, data exclusivity leads to extension of patents with out any new invention. This is been prohibited under Section 3(d) of Indian patents act.
  3. There are ethical concerns on repeating clinical trials on living beings  for commercial interests alone.
  4. TRIPS does not mandate data exclusivity.


To remember: ever greening of patents, data exclusivity, IPR laws,

Carry home points: data exclusivity provisions under patents can lead to evergreening of patents and it can harm Indian Pharma industry and rises health care costs in India.



Article: A call for Reform

Context:  IMF reforms

Notes: IMF and WB need to reform their quota system to be more relevant. IMF, WB have represented global financial architecture developed after the Second World War. They are highly inegalitarian and are criticized for domination of the west. Quotas are central to this. Quotas determine the size of contingency funds at the disposal of the IMF to lend to countries in need of help, as well as the power of individual countries to influence lending decisions.

All developing countries together have less than half of total quotas. Decisions to revise the quotas are not swiftly implemented. It has given space for alternative institutions like New development bank and AIIB to develop.

IMF will have to do more than just superficially tinker with its asymmetric power structure and outdated quota system.

To remember: IMF quota system.

Carry home points: The IMF could turn irrelevant unless it reformsto keep up with rival global institutions.



Article: Murder at noon

Context: Naxal attack on CRPF jawans in Chattisgarh.

Notes: Naxal attacks in chattisgarh exposes certain weakness in the functioning of police forces.

  1. Lack of coordination between central forces and local police deployed.
  2. Standard operating procedures and precautions are not been followed on the ground.
  3. Intelligence gathering is weak.

Way forward

  1. Extend the presence of Administration in Bastar.
  2. Make social services to reach to the people.

To remember:

Carry home points: political andcivil establishment is yet to win that argument by addressing the people’s security and welfare needs, and their concerns about extractive state policies.



Article: On tribals and tigers

Context: NTCA order to exclude tribal rights in critical tiger habitats.

Notes: The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) recently ordered that there would be no tribal rights under the Scheduled Tribes  and Other  Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act,  2006 (FRA)  in critical tiger habitats. It has flawed logic if facts on the ground are verified.

  1. No law in india permits this exclusionary logic. Wild life protection act 1972 have a mandate to ensure conservation along with human co existence.
  2. Tribals have played an important role in conservation of wild life. Soligas in Karnataka, Baigas in Kanha national park in MP are few examples.

To remember: Global environmental Justice atlas

Carry home points: exclusionary logic is been applied in India’s conservation logic.



Amaravati could become the prototype for  building cities’

Vikram soni – Environmental conservationist.

Urban water crisis can have a solution in the principle conservation and use. Various proposals that need to be considered are

  1. Protection and rejuvenation of wetlands.
  2. Stopping sand mining in flood plains.
  3. Excessive exploitation of water from flood plains need to be checked. Enough time need to be given to provide for rejuvenation of water.

Remember for essay - While we have great dreams of unravelling the secrets of the universe, the living earth beneath our feet is disappearing.



  1. India needs a dynamic policy regime – sanjeev sanyal –

a)      Policy making in India shall aspire to be responsible rather than focusing on stability.

b)      India needs a cultural shift to understand failure that may come from innovation. Bankruptcy can not be a stigma.

  1. Merging PSU banks will help – RBI governor has stated that consolidation in Banking sector can help in dealing with stressed assets.
  2. NITI Aayog moots taxing agricultural income. - Government think-tank NITIAayog has suggested that agriculture income be brought under the purview of personal Income Tax in a bid to curb tax evasion. It reasoned that non-agricultural entities sometimes use the blanket relief to evade taxes.





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