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Daily News Analysis 28-08-2014

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.

 

Charge sheeted persons should not be Ministers: SC (Pages 1 and 10)

a)     Polity

b)     Judiciary

a)     Article 75(1)

b)     Article 164(1)

c)     Moral turpitude

d)     Supreme court

e)     Parliament

f)     Legislative Assembly

a)     In a judgment that seeks to decriminalise politics, the Supreme Court advised the Prime Minister and Chief Ministers of States not to allow persons against whom charges have been framed or are facing trial for offences involving moral turpitude (immorality).

b)     The court made it clear that there was no limitation or restriction in the Constitution which debars any Member of Parliament or Legislative Assembly facing criminal charges from being included in the Cabinet.

c)     The SC refused to add a new disqualification in the Constitution for appointment as Ministers and saying it was the right of the Prime Minister or the Chief Ministers of his/her choice.

2.

80 percent in informal employment have no written contract (Page 11)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     NSSO

b)    Census 2011

c)     Crop-based farming

d)     Informal sector

e)     Agricultural sector

a)     The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) 68th round looked at the Informal Sector and conditions of Employment in India for 2011-12 by conducting a nationally representative household-level sample survey.

b)     It looked at both rural and urban areas but excluded crop-based farming, covering just over half of Indias workforce as a result.

c)     The data shows nearly three out of four people working in the non-agricultural sector in India are in informal jobs.

d)     It found that 72 percent of this workforce was in the informal sector with the proportion being higher in rural than urban India.

e)      NSSO found that Manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage were the main sectors employing informal workers.

f)      Among the States, Punjab, UP and West Bengal had the highest proportion of informal workers and the north-eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Goa the lowest.

3.

Govt. to offer health cover for poor (Page 10)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)      Health initiative schemes

b)     Census 2011

c)     Poverty

a)     Union Health and Family Welfare Minister outlined the governments plans for bringing the countrys economically weaker sections into the scope of quality healthcare by promising to provide 50 free essential drugs and health insurance cover for the poor.

b)     The Minister said apart from free drugs, there will be government paid-up health insurance cover for the poor and health insurance with competitive cover insurance for all.

4.

Ministry dumps Gadgil report on Western Ghats (Page 11)

a)     National

b)     Environment

a)     NGT

b)     WGEEP

c)     HLWG

d)     Gadgils report

e)     Environment Protection Act

f)     Western Ghats

a)     Ministry of Environment and Forests informed the National Green Tribunal (NGT) that it was not processing MadhavGadgils Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) report for any further action.

b)     The Ministry said all future activity would be based on the report of the high-level working group (HLWG) which was a subsequent one to the WGEEP report.

c)     The HLWG submitted its report on April 15 2013 and the Ministry issued a direction under Section 5 of the environment Protection Act to provide immediate protection to the Western Ghats.

d)     The HLWG has identified about 37 percent of the Western Ghats as ecologically sensitive.

5.

Ebolas re-emergence, a wake-up call (Page 8)

a)     Health

b)     S&T

a)     Ebola

b)     Zaire ebola virus

c)     ZMapp

d)     ELISA test

e)     RTPCR analysis

f)     Influenza

g)    Malaria

h)    Typhoid

i)     Cholera

j)     Viral haemorrhagic fevers

a)     The Ebola virus was identified in 1976 in two different outbreaks – one in Sudan and the other in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire).

b)     Five species of the Ebola virus characterized so far have been named after the locations of their exposure are Zaire (EBOV), Bundibugyo (BDBV), Sudan (SUDV), Tai Forest (TAFV) and Reston (RESTV).

c)     After an incubation period of 2 to 20 days, the Ebola infection shows a sudden onset of the disease resulting initially in flu-like symptoms - fever, chills and malaise.

d)     As the disease progresses, it results in multi-system involvements indicated by the person experiencing inactivity, sickness, vomiting, diarrhoea and headache.

e)     The African fruit bat is considered to be the natural host for the Ebola viruses as well as the major source of human infection.

f)     Ebola then spreads through direct contact with body fluids of an infected person which includes blood, urine, saliva, sperm and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Close contact with infected dead persons can also cause the infection.

g)     Unlike flu viruses, Ebola does not spread through air.

h)     While Ebola virus infections can be easily identified in laboratories through standard tests like ELISA and RTPCR analysis, obtaining samples from patients is extremely risky and can only be conducted under highly advanced containment facilities.

i)     Another difficulty experienced in its detection is that initial symptoms are similar to those of many other fever-causing diseases like influenza, malaria, typhoid, cholera and other viral haemorrhagic fevers.

6.

Solar neutrinos: messengers from within (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     Solar neutrinos

b)     Borexino experiment

c)     Helium nuclei

d)     Scintillator

e)     Apennine Mountains

f)     Solar energy

a)     The Borexino experiment has now come out with exciting results about the processes that keep the Sun going and glowing.

b)     It is well known that the process that generates energy in the Sun involves pairs of protons combining to produce helium nuclei. In the process, neutrinos are also generated.

c)     After great effort, by controlling the background signals, the Borexino experiment has enabled direct detection of the low-energy neutrinos produced in these nuclear reactions that initiate solar energy generation.

d)     Located deep below the Apennine Mountains, the Borexino instrument detects neutrinos as they interact with the electrons of an ultrapure organic liquid scintillator at the centre of a large sphere surrounded by 1000 tons of water.

e)     This is the only detector on Earth capable of observing the entire spectrum of solar neutrinos simultaneously.

7.

Source of UV light (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     UV light

b)     Quasars

a)     A new method developed by researchers shows we will soon uncover the origin of ultraviolet light helping scientiststo understand how galaxies were built.

b)    The new method builds on a technique already used by astronomers in which quasars act as signals to understand space. Quasars are the brightest objects in the universe and their intense light is generated by a gas.

c)     The intense light from quasars makes them easy to spot even at extreme distances up to 95 percent of the way across the observable universe.

d)     By studying how this light interacts with hydrogen gas on its journey to earth will reveal the main sources of lighting in the universe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: Read all snapshots in S&T page 16.

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