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Daily News Analysis 10-01-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.

 

Modi speaks to Hollande, condemns terror attack (Page 12)

a)     I.R

a)     Terrorism

b)     Attack on Charlie Hebdo

c)     India – France relations

a)     Modi strongly criticised the terror attack on the office of satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo in Paris and conveyed condolences on behalf of the people of India with French President.

b)     Expressing solidarity with the people of France, he expressed confidence that President and the people of France will deal with this moment of distress and challenge with courage and that they will succeed in combating the forces of terrorism.

c)     He also restated his commitment to counter-terrorism cooperation as a key element of the growing strategic partnership between India and France.

d)     Thanking Modi for the solidarity and support, French President said this support from the worlds largest democracy meant a lot to the people of France.

e)     The French President underlined his commitment to deepen defence and security cooperation between India and France and said he was looking forward to Modis visit to France this year.

2.

Sirisena likely to stop China tilt (Page 12)

a)     I.R

a)     Sri Lankas politics

b)     India – Sri Lanka relations

c)     Chinas projects in Sri Lanka

d)     Indias concerns

a)     Sri Lanka watchers in India believe that with Maithripala Sirisena coming to power in Sri Lanka, the island nations move towards China will be reduced considerably.

b)     They have been critical of the former President Rajapaksa for his move towards China and ignoring Indias appeal to grant devolution of powers to the Tamil-majority northern region, as he had repeatedly promised.

c)     The move towards China will be reduced considerably with this stunning victory and if India is willing, it can be given the advantage of that.

d)     During Rajapaksas tenure, China won a primary role as a donor and investor, also loaning approximately $500 million for development projects.

e)     It also bagged some of the biggest projects, including the $1.5 billion Colombo port reclamation project for state corporations.

f)     India has also been concerned about Chinas strategic influence in Sri Lanka and National Security Adviser had reportedly complained about the docking of Chinese submarines in the Colombo harbour.

g)     India must reclaim the strategic space that it has lost by default to China now.

h)     By congratulating Sirisena, Chinese official said our friendship runs deep and successive govts of Sri Lanka have had a friendship policy towards China.

3.

Will 2015 be the year of the LeT? (Page 11)

a)     International

a)     Terrorism

b)     Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT)

c)     MDI

d)    Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) 

e)     Deobandi Taliban of the Tehreek-e-Taliban

f)     Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI)

g)     Sleeper cells

a)     The Pakistan Supreme Court ordered Mumbai 26/11 master-conspirator Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvis further detention on Jan 6 2015, referring back the case for hearing both the sides by the Islamabad High Court.

b)     Even as a troubled Pakistani establishment struggles to avoid international criticism on his imminent release, the LeT seems poised to emerge in a more high profile role in 2015.

c)     Eight reasons were given for waging jihad.

d)     The first objective is to end the oppression of Muslims wherever it takes place.

e)     The second and third objectives are to restore the Muslim caliphate and establish the dominance of Islam.

f)     The fourth objective is to help weak and oppressed Muslims wherever they are.

g)     The fifth makes taking revenge for murder of fellow Muslims.

h)     The sixth entails punishment to those who violate their oaths with Muslims.

i)     The seventh objective is to fight to defend oneself and the eighth is to recapture occupied Muslim territory.

j)     Organisations such as MDI, JuD and LeT understand and use the concept of jihad in the sense of killing.

k)     Soon after LeTs formation, Hafiz Mohammad Saeed started presenting the jihadi discourse in Indian Kashmir as a struggle between Islam and  unbelief.

l)     Kashmir was projected as the entry point but the aim was to break up the whole of India.

m)     Ahle Hadith members of MDI were asked to establish sleeper cells in different parts of India.

n)     After the proscribing of LeT, other front names like MDI or JuD were supported up to divert focus and suggest that their work was bigger than that of LeT but its leadership has always claimed that they would return to the banner of LeT one day, as the army the Prophet led into Mecca was also called LeT or the Army of Medina.

o)     The LeT was formed in 1993 as part of the power struggle by Saeed and Iqbal to sideline ulemas such as Allama Rashidi.

p)     The ISI was preparing the ground for a new jihad in Indian-held Kashmir even as the Afghan jihad was losing momentum after the Soviet pull-out in 1988.

q)     As the deadline for withdrawal of US/International Security Assistance Force troops from Afghanistan passes, the ISI could also be looking for a new role for the LeT there.

r)     As Deobandi Taliban of the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan group seem no longer under Pakistani militarys control, the aim could be to use the LeT against them, while continuing to utilise it as proxy against Indian interests in Afghanistan too.

s)     Pakistans security establishment categorises militant organisations into three groups: first, those that are a threat to Pakistan only; second, groups that pose a threat to both Pakistan and the US; third, groups that are a threat only to the US, India or any other country. LeT/ JuD fall into the third category.

t)     The Armys support of JuD is based on a faulty belief that it would not spin out of their control or wage jihadagainst Pakistan.

u)     JuD leaders have publicly held they would not stop jihad even if Indian Kashmir was liberated.

v)     LeT activists shamelessly claim that they enjoy the support and sympathy of employees of almost every govt department in Pakistan.

w)     LeTs younger ideologues believe that Pakistan is destined to lead the global jihad and JuD would not be against to having an Islamic caliphate in South Asia.

x)     Though, (at present) the Army leadership appears sanguine about controlling the LeT, given the JuDs ability to systematically and extremely follow its plans, this may inevitably bring it into confrontation with the Pakistan Army in the days ahead. 

4.

UN extends use of meningitis vaccine in African infants (Page 11)

a)     International

b)     Health

a)     Meningitis vaccine

b)    Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP)

c)     WHO

a)     The WHO has approved giving a groundbreaking meningitis vaccine to babies across Africa.

b)     WHOs thumbs up for MenAfriVac in mass immunisation programmes will increase the campaign against meningitis in the worlds poorest continent.

c)     Launched in 2010, the vaccine has been administered to more than 215 million people in the 15 countries of the African meningitis belt.

d)     MenAfriVac was developed by MVP and is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India.

e)     WHOs approval means the vaccine meets international safety and quality standards and can be used in children under a year old.

4.

Choosing thy neighbour (Page 11)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Social bias in India

b)     Religion

c)     Caste

d)     OBC

e)     SC

f)     ST

a)     Popular debate around social biases in India is structured around two competing narratives.

b)     One view holds that as an urbanising country with rapid economic growth over the past few decades, the importance of ascriptive identities such as caste and religion is gradually eroding.

c)     An opposing view holds that these biases have remained strong in India, even in the face of substantial economic development and increasingly heterogeneous cities.

d)     Such a simple dichotomy understates the complexity in characterising social biases in India.

e)     While social biases often result from harm or chauvinism, they may also result from legitimate worries about or threats from another social group.

f)     In order to develop a deeper understanding of the profile of social biases in India, we analyse new data from the Lok Surveys, taking advantage of both the scale and the geographic spread of the sample. 

g)     Rather than depending on complex typologies that can be impacted by preconceived notions, we focus our analysis on a simple topic, which we believe represents a core form of social bias: differences in preferences for the identity of ones neighbours.

h)     They involve beliefs about how different social groups affect social solidarity in a neighbourhood, as well as apprehensions about interacting with different social groups.

i)     We randomised whether the respondent would receive a cause for religious or caste bias.

j)     For instance, a Hindu respondent placed to receive a religious bias cause might be asked about a Muslim neighbour and a Muslim respondent might be asked about a Hindu neighbour.

k)     Similarly, an upper caste individual placed to receive a caste bias cause could be asked about OBCs, SCs or STs.

l)     In this manner, we generated data on a complex set of social interactions in Indian society. 

m)     Overall, 27 percent of the sample population directly admitted that they were against having a neighbour from a different religious or caste community.

n)     There is significant variation in levels of social bias across States.

o)     Punjab displays the highest level of social bias with 36 percent of respondents displaying an aversion to living near those of another caste or religion, while the post-split Andhra Pradesh (Seemandhra) displays the lowest levels of social bias with 12 percent of respondents displaying aversion.

p)     Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan also had relatively high rates of social bias.

q)     The education level or wealth of respondents had little impact on whether they would report social bias.

r)     The majority of the variation in social biases is seen between specific identity groups.

s)     Social bias may also be generated from threats to power and intensifying economic and social competition.

t)     In order to understand the role of social and economic ascendance on preferences for neighbours, we also investigated the relationship between middle class identification and social bias.

u)     However, it is precisely this socially mobile group that accounts for much of the social bias we observe in our sample.

v)     Among those who do not identify as middle class, only 17 percent of respondents said they did not want a neighbour from a different community.

w)     Based on our data, we suggest two very different causes for bias in ones preferences for neighbours. 

x)     We conclude that the very process of development and change in India may be generating new forms of social and economic competition that manifest themselves in terms of social bias.

y)     A modernising India may cause the erosion of certain traditional hierarchies while opening the way for new split based around social and economic contestation. 

6.

Governors rule in J&K (Page 1)

a)     National

a)     Governors rule

b)     Article 370

c)     Section 92(1) of the Constitution of J&K

d)     Presidents rule

a)     J&K came under Governors rule with no political party coming forward and supporting claim to form the govt and National Conference leader Omar Abdullah asking to be relieved as caretaker CM.

b)     As none of the parties has so far support claim to form the govt, the governance of the State cannot be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the State.

c)     Consequently, with the approval of the President of India, Governors rule has been imposed in the State under Section 92(1) of the Constitution of J&K with effect from Jan 8 2015.

d)     This is the second time that J&K has come under Governors rule during N.N. Vohras tenure.

7.

PM for mechanism to ensure accountability of doctors (Page 11)

a)     National

b)     Health

a)     Healthcare

b)     Child and maternal mortality

c)     Encephalitis  

d)     Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

a)     PM Modi called for establishing mechanisms to ensure accountability of doctors and health officials in the public sector and a road map for reducing child and maternal mortality.

b)     He instructed the Health Ministry to improve the efficiency of existing mechanisms and schemes.

c)     He expressed concern over the prevalence of diseases like encephalitis (especially among children) and instructed the Ministry officials to prepare a road map to tackle such diseases and also prepare a follow-up action plan on making SAARC a polio-free region.

d)     He called for reviewing the progress of key health indicators such as under-five mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio and asked for specific identification of worst performing districts.

e)     He said the effects of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should be visible in hospitals.

8.

RBI Governor hails decision to free banks (Page 16)

a)     Economy

a)     Public sector banks (PSBs)

b)     RBI

 

a)     The RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan said that the decision of the govt to give freedom to PSBs to function independently is a land mark decision.

b)     Modi said that the government will not interfere in the functioning of PSBs.

c)     He also called for ending lazy banking and said that banks must prioritise lending to employment-generating sectors.

d)     Rajan said that institution plays an important role in the intellectual development of students. 

9.

Saturns position pinpointed (Page 9)

a)     S&T

a)     Cassini spacecraft  

b)     Very Long Baseline Array radio-telescope system

c)     Deep Space Network

d)     Saturn

a)     Scientists have used NASAs Cassini spacecraft to pinpoint the position of Saturn and its family of moons to within about 4 km, a measurement which is around 50 times more precise than those provided by ground-based optical telescopes.

b)     Scientists used the National Science Foundations Very Long Baseline Array radio-telescope system to pinpoint the position of Cassini as it orbited Saturn over the past decade by receiving the signal from the spacecrafts radio transmitter.

c)     They combined this data with information about Cassinis orbit from NASAs Deep Space Network.

d)     The combined observations allowed the scientists to make the most accurate determinations yet of the position of the centre of mass of Saturn and its moons. 

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