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Daily News Analysis 05-02-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.

India agreed to share data for breakthrough in talks (Pages 10)

a)     I.R

a)     India has an administrative arrangement with Canada and that has been the template for finalising administrative arrangement with the US.

2.

France keen on details of India – US nuclear deal (Page 10)

a)     I.R

a)     France welcomes the civil nuclear agreement between India and the US as it offers a way forward to nuclear cooperation without changing the nuclear liability law.

3.

A mortar-for-bullet game (Page 9)

a)     I.R

a)     India and Pakistan should begin talks to conclude a new ceasefire agreement.

4.

Indian firms need to do more to avoid climate change risks (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     According to CDP report, India is not doing enough to manage climate change risks

5.

The twist in the growth story (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     The new estimate shows that Indias growth is 6.6 percent.

6.

India at the bottom of GIPC Index (Page 15)

a)     Economy

a)     India is not a contracting party to any of the international treaties included in the GIPC Index.

7.

Cancer cases may rise sharply: WHO (Page 11)

a)     Health

a)     WHO has called for vaccination against HPV and HBV.

8.

Citizen scientists find missing link in star formation (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     Scientists found that newborn stars are sparking in area of dust.

9.

Beneficial algal species discovered (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     Two new bloom-forming algal species (which have excellent carbon capture properties) discovered recently off the west coast of India.

 

 

 

 

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.

India agreed to share data for breakthrough in talks (Pages 10)

a)     I.R

a)     India – US relations

b)     Nuclear deal

c)     International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

d)     Hyde Act of 2006

a)     India has agreed to share data on nuclear material and equipment to make the US reject its tracking requirements on that material.

b)     According to sources, this concession was the reason for the development in agreement on the administrative arrangements for the Indo-US civilian nuclear deal.

c)     Indian officials said we have an administrative arrangement with Canada and that has been the template for finalising our administrative arrangement with the US.

d)     The text of the Canadian agreement has not yet been made public but is understood to only allow for IAEA safeguards while sharing data based on aggregates from the UN agency.

e)     The American requirement under the Hyde Act of 2006 stipulates that the US President must certify to US Congress that India is in compliance with US tracking and flagging requirements on fissile material and nuclear equipment at reactors supplied by the US, even if it is from third parties.

2.

France keen on details of India – US nuclear deal (Page 10)

a)     I.R

a)     India – France relations

b)     India-France civil nuclear deal

c)     Paris climate summit 2015

d)     Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS)

e)     Carbon emissions

a)     France welcomes the civil nuclear agreement between India and the US as it offers a way forward to nuclear cooperation without changing the nuclear liability law.

b)     India and France finalised a civil nuclear deal in 2010, under which the French are to set up a total of six reactors of 1650 MW each at Jaitapur in Maharashtra.

c)     French Ministers are in India to attend the DSDS and the bilateral component is largely focussed on negotiations towards the global climate summit in Paris in December as well as projects in renewable energy and urban development.

d)     Global nations are under pressure to confirm a deal at the Paris summit to cut down carbon emissions and limit the global temperature rise to two degrees.

e)     France has committed $1.3 billion for renewable energy projects in India and is set to double that amount.

3.

A mortar-for-bullet game (Page 9)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Pakistan relations

b)     Border disputes

c)     LoC

d)     International Border (IB)

e)     Simla Agreement

f)     Karachi Agreement of 1948

a)      Pakistan has voiced serious concerns about the regional strategic imbalance arising out of the Indo-US deals at a time when Indo-Pak relations have reached a new low due to ceasefire violations along LoC and IB.

b)     The India-Pakistan ceasefire agreement is dead, after having survived hundreds of ceasefire violations since its inception in 2003.

c)     New Delhi and Islamabad should begin talks to conclude a new ceasefire agreement instead of engaging in a mortar-for-bullet game of military one-upmanship and killing each others soldiers and villagers residing both sides of the contested lines in J&K.

d)     The LoC was put in place by the Simla Agreement of July 1972 replacing the ceasefire line created by the Karachi Agreement of 1948.

e)     The current ceasefire agreement governs the end of hostilities along the India-Pakistan border created by the Simla Agreement.

f)     The agreement does not define the modalities, rules or Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to manage the ceasefire on the LoC and the IB.

g)     One of the major causes of ceasefire violations is the deliberate firing by Pakistani troops in order to provide cover for the infiltrators trying to enter J &K.

h)     The recent series of ceasefire violations was also a result of the complete absence of any bilateral engagement between the two sides.

i)      The other major cause is the construction, repair or enhancement of defence works on either side.

j)      Even though the August 2005 Indo-Pak joint statement agreed not to develop any new posts and defence works along the LoC, both sides seem to be violating this.

k)     Confusions exist because of the absence of a proper demarcation of the LoC as well as the fact that over the decades, the demarcating line itself has become less clear due to natural causes such as soil erosion, rains, snowfall, landslides, etc.

l)     After appropriate negotiations, a new agreement should be signed by the two Premiers and not communicated by the Director-General of Military Operations (DGMO) over phone as was the case in 2003.

m)     Joint SOPs should be developed to govern issues relating to crossings, returnees etc.

n)     There should be more clarity on the issue of defence construction along the LoC.

o)     Likewise, there is also an urgent need to jointly demarcate the LoC in order to avoid territorial misunderstandings.

p)     Once these major steps are taken, Islamabad and New Delhi should ensure that there is more regularity to the meetings of DGMOs.

q)     The responsibility of initiating a dialogue with Islamabad undeniably lay with New Delhi, which unilaterally cancelled the dialogue process in August this year.

r)     Therefore, New Delhi should negotiate a new ceasefire agreement with Islamabad.

4.

Indian firms need to do more to avoid climate change risks (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     Climate change

b)     Greenhouse gas emissions

c)     Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) report

a)     According to a new report by CDP, Lack of preparation leaves supply chains in Brazil, China, India and the US more vulnerable to climate change risks than those in Europe and Japan.

b)     According to the report, Suppliers in India and Canada are not doing enough to manage climate change risks. In particular, Indian companies show a low tendency to reporting on emissions.

c)     The report finds that Chinese and Indian suppliers deliver the greatest financial returns on investment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and show the strongest desire for collaboration across the value chain.

d)     The report points out that the percentage of suppliers implementing emission reduction initiatives has fallen to 41 percent in 2014 from 65 percent in 2012. 

e)     While suppliers in France, the UK, Spain and Germany are identified as the most sustainable and they have taken extensive measures despite comparatively low levels of exposure to climate risk, suppliers in China, Italy and the US are found to be vulnerable.

5.

The twist in the growth story (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     GDP growth

b)     Inflation

c)     Current Account Deficit (CAD)

d)     Fiscal deficit

e)     Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRMB) Act

f)     Make in India

a)     While the earlier estimate showed a growth rate of 4.7 percent, the growth rate according to the new estimate is 6.6 percent.

b)     While the investment rate did show a sharp decline during the last three years, a greater part of it was due to the decline in the investment rate of households rather than the corporate sector.

c)     Thus, the slowdown in the economy was not as severe or extended as was feared earlier.

d)     Under the impact of the financial crisis, the Indian economy registered a growth of 6.7 percent in 2008-09, after having posted a growth rate exceeding 9 percent for three consecutive years.

e)     The economy achieved a growth rate of 8.6 percent in 2009-10, despite a severe drought.

f)     The slowdown has been attributed to supply side bottlenecks, price shocks and weak investment demand.

g)     Sustained high growth requires macroeconomic stability which has three dimensions - low inflation, low CAD and modest fiscal deficit.

h)     The moderation in inflation has occurred only recently. The CAD has again come under control. The fiscal deficit continues to remain above the level mandated in the FRMB Act. 

i)     Govts expenditures need to be reoriented more towards investments and less towards subsidies.

j)     Make in India should indicate producing for India and for the world. Making only for India will convert it into a form of import substitution. Making for the world makes the system more efficient.

k)     The basic principle guiding reforms must be to create a competitive environment with a stress on efficiency.

6.

India at the bottom of GIPC Index (Page 15)

a)     Economy

a)     Global Intellectual Property Center (GIPC) Index

b)     IPRs

c)     FTA

d)     TRIPS Agreement

a)     The US Chamber of Commerces GIPC found that 20 of the 30 economies examined in the Index improved their scores from last year.

b)     India was ranked second from the bottom in the third edition of GIPC index, while the US was at the top.

c)     The index is based on 30 measurable criteria critical to innovation, including patent, copyright and trademark protections, enforcement, and engagement in international treaties.

d)     It points out that India is not a contracting party to any of the international treaties included in the GIPC Index, nor has concluded FTA with substantial IP provisions since acceding to the TRIPS Agreement.

7.

Cancer cases may rise sharply: WHO (Page 11)

a)     Health

a)     Cancer

b)     Human papilloma virus (HPV)

c)     Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

d)     WHO

a)     The WHO has cautioned that the number of new cancer cases is expected to rise by about 70 percent globally over the next two decades.

b)     It said that Cancer was among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally in 2012.

c)     According to the Union Health Ministry, the estimated mortality every year is 5 lakh in India.

d)     The WHO has called for vaccination against HPV and HBV, reducing exposure to non-ionizing radiation by sunlight and ionizing radiation and early detection.

8.

Citizen scientists find missing link in star formation (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     Stars formation

b)     Milky Way project

c)     Spitzer space telescope

d)     Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

a)     Citizen scientists in the Milky Way project have identified new structures which can be a stage in the formation of stars,

b)     Scanning through a huge number of photographs sent down to earth by NASAs Spitzer space telescope, the participants noticed yellow balls that had been previously unnoticed.

c)     They analysed the yellow balls and figured out that they are a new way to detect the early stages of massive star formation.

d)     In the Milky Way Project, volunteers scan through images that Spitzer took of the thick plane of our galaxy, where newborn stars are sparking in area of dust.

e)     In addition to the yellow balls, there are many green bubbles with red centres, populating a landscape of moving gas and dust. These bubbles are the result of massive newborn stars blowing out cavities in their surroundings.

f)     The green bubble rims are made largely of organic molecules called PAHs, cleared away by blasts of radiation and winds from the central star.

9.

Beneficial algal species discovered (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     Algal species

b)     Bloom forming

c)     Carbon sequestration

d)     Bio invasion

 

a)     Two new bloom-forming algal species (Ulva paschima Bast and Cladophora goensis Bastwere) discovered recently off the west coast of India.

b)     These two species have excellent carbon capture properties (ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce global warming) and are also promising candidates for use as bio fuels.

c)     Currently, a number of research groups are working on using algae as a potential candidate for carbon sequestration because they grow at very high rates and can absorb atmospheric CO2.

d)     As they are endemic, their cultivation is not going to cause any environmental harm; had it been a species of Atlantic or Mediterranean origin, it might overgrow local flora and might cause damage on the local habitats - the so-called bio invasion.

e)     Bloom forming indicates spontaneous growth. There is no need for fertilizers/pesticides or any expensive cultivation systems such as photobioreactors for their cultivation. These can grow irregularly at shorelines and can isolate CO2.

f)     The main criteria used for determining these species as newly discovered is a mix of morphological as well as molecular characteristics.

 

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