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My Notes By RB sir 03-06-2015

RBI cuts repo rates

  1. RBI decreased the Repo rate i.e, the rate at which it lends to the banks by .25 basis points.
  2. It decreases the cost of capital as interest rates ease up.
  3. The positive points that led to this are - low inflation, CAD, fiscal deficit . High forex reserves and flow of investments, both direct and portfolio .
  4. If growth momentum has to take root ,pooling the investments and raising the demand in the economy is key. As export markets are still sluggish, raising the domestic demand for utilisation of capacities is the key.
  5. Still, there are certain alarming signs- failing monsoons, setting in El nino may decrease agricultural output and may create food inflationary pressures. To offset this, the Government shall focus on improving supply chain challenges.
  6. Lack of buffer stocks in pulses and oilseeds is another challenge.
  7. On external front, the low Current account deficit cannot be a long term feature due to rising oil prices again.
  8. On the other hand, easing in china makes their currency more competitive than India and competition for exports is going to intensify.

Rohingyas

 

  1. Rohingyas are the Muslim population of Myanmar, Native to Rakhine state. They are rendered state less by Myanmar state considering them as illegal immigrants. The establishment considers them as immigrants from Bangladesh.
  2. The most persecuted minorities across the world are fleeing Myanmar to many south East asian nations in search of safe settlements are becoming victims of trafficking , extortion. Many of them are ending their lives on the seas.
  3. The democratic movement of Myanmar, India, Bangladesh , South east Asian countries of Indonesia, Thailand and Malasiya have no place for them.
  4. The illegal immigrants become the economic instruments for growth for many of these Asian tigers when investments were strong in infrastructure. They offered cheap labour fuelling the economy. Once, the economies turned to be consumer centric, these people became a burden. This is the anomaly in the globalized world. Non acceptance of work force through formal channels leading to clogging of alternative channels that are good places for extortion.
  5. Ethno religious identities, growing Islamophoboia, a climate anti muslim sentiments in India are all the factors for todays plight of  Rohingyas.

 

 

Water tribunal trap

 

  1. Art 262 of the constitution places the responsibility of legislation for adjudication on Interstate river waters on parliament.
  2. To this effect, Interstate water disputes act , 1956 was passed by the parliament. In the constituent assembly, Ambedkar strongly objected to this , saying the arrangements are inadequate as disputes are bound to increase.  On the other hand , minister of irrigation Gulzarilal nanda, strongly supported for establishment of tribunals for a swift and definitive decision making.
  3. But, in reality there are inordinate delays and a comprehensive solution  is never arrived yet.
  4. The National water policy 2012, proposes for setting a permanent tribunal to replace the all existing individual tribunals.
  5. In spite of all this, giving the supreme court the jurisdiction in these matters can be much better.

Security / Law / Strategic affairs

The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2014

  • The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2014 was introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment, Mr. Thaawar Chand Gehlot on July 16, 2014.  
  • The Bill replaces the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Ordinance, 2014. 
  • The Bill seeks to amend the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.  The Act prohibits the commission of offences against members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs) and establishes special courts for the trial of such offences and the rehabilitation of victims.
  • Actions to be treated as offences:  The Act outlines actions (by non SCs and STs) against SCs or STs to be treated as offences.  The Bill amends certain existing categories and adds new categories of actions to be treated as offences. 
  • Forcing an SC or ST individual to vote or not vote for a particular candidate in a manner that is against the law is an offence under the Act.  The Bill adds that impeding certain activities related to voting will also be considered an offence.  Wrongfully occupying land belonging to SCs or STs is an offence under the Act.  The Bill defines ‘wrongful’ in this context, which was not done under the Act. 
  • Assaulting or sexual exploiting an SC or ST woman is an offence under the Act.  The Bill adds that: (a) intentionally touching an SC or ST woman in a sexual manner without her consent, or (b) using words, acts or gestures of a sexual nature, or (c) dedicating an SC or ST women as a devadasi to a temple, or any similar practice will also be considered an offence.  Consent is defined as a voluntary agreement through verbal or non-verbal communication. 
  • New offences added under the Bill include: (a) garlanding with footwear, (b) compelling to dispose or carry human or animal carcasses, or do manual scavenging, (c) abusing SCs or STs by caste name in public, (d) attempting to promote feelings of ill-will against SCs or STs or disrespecting any deceased person held in high esteem, and (e) imposing or threatening a social or economic boycott. 
  • Preventing SCs or STs from undertaking the following activities will be considered an offence: (a) using common property resources, (c) entering any place of worship that is open to the public, and (d) entering an education or health institution.
  • The court shall presume that the accused was aware of the caste or tribal identity of the victim if the accused had personal knowledge of the victim or his family, unless the contrary is proved.
  • Role of public servants:  The Act specifies that a non SC or ST public servant who neglects his duties relating to SCs or STs shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term of six months to one year.  The Bill specifies these duties, including: (a) registering a complaint or FIR, (b) reading out information given orally, before taking the signature of the informant and giving a copy of this information to the informant, etc. 
  • Role of courts:  Under the Act, a court of Session at the district level is deemed a Special Court to provide speedy trials for offences.  A Special Public Prosecutor is appointed to conduct cases in this court. 
  • The Bill substitutes this provision and specifies that an Exclusive Special Court must be established at the district level to try offences under the Bill.  In districts with fewer cases, a Special Court may be established to try offences.  An adequate number of courts must be established to ensure that cases are disposed of within two months.  Appeals of these courts shall lie with the high court, and must be disposed of within three months.  A Public Prosecutor and Exclusive Public Prosecutor shall be appointed for every Special Court and Exclusive Special Court respectively. 
  • Rights of victims and witnesses:  The Bill adds a chapter on the rights of victims and witness.  It shall be the duty of the state to make arrangements for the protection of victims, their dependents and witnesses.  The state government shall specify a scheme to ensure the implementation of rights of victims and witnesses.
  • The courts established under the Bill may take measures such as: (a) concealing the names of witnesses, (b) taking immediate action in respect of any complaint relating to harassment of a victim, informant or witness, etc.  Any such complaint shall be tried separately from the main case and be concluded within two months.   

  1. It is given by US based world justice project and analyses 102 countries on eight criteria such as
  2. Constraints on Government powers
  3. Absence of corruption
  4. Open Government
  5. Fundamental Rights
  6. Order and security
  7. Regulatory enforcement
  8. Civil justice
  9. Criminal justice

India overall ranked at 59 , third among south Asia and 10  of 25 middle income nations. In south Asia, Nepal is the top performer.

 

On civil justice - various factors discussed were, general awareness of laws, availability and affordability of legal advice, legal hurdles etc.

 

On open Government front - Existence of RTI, awareness  generation on laws, civic participation and compliant mechanisms are observed.

 

India performs worst on order and security - it analyses the absence of civil conflict, absence of violence as a socially acceptable means of grievance redressal.

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