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My notes 15-06-2015



June 15, 2015

Indian Citizenship to Bangladeshi Hindus

  1. In a case filed in 2012 by two NGOs, Swajan and Bimalangshu Roy Foundation, which pleaded that Hindus and persons of other minorities from Bangladesh migrating to India to escape religious persecution must not be bracketed with illegal migrants and sent back.
  2. BJP government is formalizing a policy to this effect to grant citizenship status to them.
  3. It has broader ideological position, as mentioned in the BJP election manifesto, that India should be the natural home for persecuted Hindus who could seek refuge here. This has overtones of exclusionary doctrines like the Law of Return in Israel that gives Jews the right to live and seek citizenship there.
  4. Here the problem is, specification of time period - It may complicate the relations with Bangladesh. It may show that country in bad light with regard to protection of its minorities.
  5. In this context, it is better if India has a National policy on Refugees or if it signs the 1951 refugee convention.  Here,  signatories are obliged not to send refugees back to where they have a well-founded fear of persecution.


4300 from Afghanistan Pakistan gets citizenship


  1. It is in line with BJP policy to make India a natural home for persecuted hindus and sikhs.
  2. This year, after NDA Government has came to power, the number of citizenship approvals increased by 4 times.
  3. The process for longterm online visa are also simplified.

March Of IS

  1. IS occupied the state of Ramadi in Iraq and ancient city of Palmyra in Syria.
  2. The major reason for the progress of these extreme elements are
  3. Lack of cohesive fight Syrian forces, Iraqi army, Kurd forces, Us led allies
  4. Weak capacities of Iraqi forces
  5. Sectarian violence


Failures in the fight against IS

Coordination and sectarian fault lines - every group fighting against IS is guided by self-interest and sectarian calculations. Sunni dominated Turkey and Saudi do not coordinate with Lebanese Hezbollah, Iran. Similarly west, Saudi, turkey do not take the support of Syrian army.


The hot saudi - Iran cold war

Demographic Composition in west asia





Ruling classes





Assyrian Christians

Saddam Hussein - Sunni/ presently a republic. During Baath party regime Saudi enjoyed relations. Now, Iran influence is increasing. The shia Government is in power now.








Saudi Arabia




Monarchy - Sunni






Rule by Sunnis -   Shia militia is growing. Ruler supported by Saudi. Rebels by Iran






Ruled by Sunni monarchy. Monarchy supported by Saudi





Christians - 40%

Hezbollah - a Shia terrorist organization. It supports Hamas in Palestine. Hezbollah is supported by Iran.






Ruler Assad is a alwaite Shia. Friend of Iran


GCC - dominated by conservative gulf monarchies.

  1. The three major reasons for the growth of IS are
  2. External interventions
  3. The Arab revolts
  4. Saudi - Iran antagonism
  5. History
  6.   Initially opposition between Saudi- Iran before Islamic revolution can be more seen as a competition for an edge in global energy market and for regional influence. After revolution it transformed itself in to a Shia Islamic republicanism and Sunni Wahhabism.
  7. Iran - Iraq war between 1980-88, most of the Sunni states stood with Saddam Hussein. The GCC formed during the war, became an axis of Sunni monarchies against Iran.
  8. Iran on the other hand, encouraged Shia militia such as Hezbollah in Lebanon.
  9. After American Invasion of Iraq, There is a political rise of Shia population and it has revived historical connections with Iran.  There are reports that Saudi is supporting the Sunni extremist groups in Iraq Shia - Sunni sectarian war.
  10. During and after Arab spring, Saudi sent its troops to Bahrain and Yemen to protect Sunni regimes.
  11. Syria - Assad is a friend of civil war and his regime is supported by Iran. Rebels are supported by Saudi and GCC.
  12. Saudi - Iran rivalry is no longer about two nations , it got entangled with regional politics and is the basis for instability in the region.

Sub optimal accord

  1. Nepal political parties reached an agreement with the following principles on promulgating a new constitution. The major aspects are
  2. Parliamentary form of Government
  3. A federation with 8 provinces whose boundaries will be determined by a commission
  4. Mixed electoral system - 60% of MPs will be elected by first pass the post system and remaining by proportional representation.


Legality of doctrine of hot pursuit

  1. Hot pursuit  under international law is applied for attacks on high seas on pirates or illegal elements by sovereign coastal state to protect the freedom of navigation on high seas. This doctrine do not extend to the territorial waters of a foreign state. It is also codified in Un convention on law of High seas.
  2. Applying this doctrine for extra territorial incursions is seen with suspicion and negative opinion by the international community. Kenya s justification on military action against al-shabaab militants in Somali territory invited lot of international criticism.
  3. So, India s legal position can be better served with by invoking the expanded doctrine of self defence. Which evolved after sep11.2001. It permits the state to use force against non-state actors and breach the territorial sovereignty of foreign states in response to a terrorist attacks.



Marital rape - when marriage is less than sacred

  1. misogyny is a special type of hatred for women, where a person believes that she deserves to be treated in a particular demeaning way. It flows from the arguments of gender superiority, patriarchy.
  2. Misogyny is also an ideology that appropriates and controls the female consent. It is the basis for marital rape and it denies the women the freedom to say no.
  3. No legal objections to marital rape makes her a victim of sexual violence and it is visible in the number of suicides among the married women.
  4. The conservative thinking of Indian establishment shall give way for a law that protects the woman from marital violence of another form.



  1. Markets are always on the forefront in leading a social change. It is visible in development of markets related to LGBTs in various country. Later, state took cognizance of it and legitimized it.
  2. As the economic clout of LGBTs is increasing in India, their buying power will dictate their social acceptance. It enters the public discourse and finally in to society.


NFHS survey on suicide

  1. The total number of suicides increased in India and most of them among the married people. Suicide by farmers make up only for 3 %.
  2. Among the total number of suicides committed by women , 51.4% are house wives.
  3. Growing complexity of urban life, marital stress, lack of mental care and stigma on mental illness are the major reasons. Marriage counselling and psychiatric help can improve the situation.







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