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My notes 16-06-2015

Railways

Saturday, June 13, 2015

9:07 PM

Debroy panel recommendations

  1. Railways shall confine to the core function of transport.
  2. Regulatory authority need to be appointed on determining prices.
  3. Commercial accounting practices , greater decentralisation of powers, allowing entry of private sector etc are other recommendations.
  4. Slowly, the railway budget has to be done away with.
  5. The major challenge is the appointment of regulatory authority which may be opposed by ball powerful railway board and entry of private by the union. It is the reason why, report recommended the implementation has to be overseen at the political level.

North east issues

 

Naga Issue

  1. The roots of Naga issue exist in Government of India act 1935, which declared - Naga hills district to be treated as excluded areas. Demanding for an independence as a separate nation Naga national congress was established by Angami Zapi Phizo in 1946.
  2. NNC also established Naga Federal Government and Naga federal army in 1956. since than, phizo left to london to fight Naga cause.
  3. Nagaland was created as a separate state to ease out the insurgency/secessionism in 1963.
  4. Indian Government with formed the peace mission with Jaya prakash narayan, Bimala prasad chaliha, and Re Micheal scott in 1964, It did not yield any results.
  5. India banned NNC in 1972 under Unlawful activities (prevention) act of 1967 and launched a massive counterinsurgency operation.
  6. 1975 shillong accord - It was between Government of India and Naga underground organisation. Here the signatories accepted with out condition , the constitution of India. Against this, rebellion led to the formation of NSCN.
  7. In 1988, NSCN is divided in to two factions, NSCN(Isac-Muviah), NSCN(khaplang) - NSCN rank and file are from konyak tribe, while the command structure dominated by the tangkhuls. Later Konyaks divides to form NSN(Khaplang)
  8. In 1997, NSCN(IM) and central Government entered in to a caesefire agreement and later in 2001 NSCN(Khaplang) too.
  9. NSCN (Khaplang) signed a caesefire agreement with the Government of Myanmar on 9 April 2012. It granted freedom of movement for NSCN -K in three districts in sagaing region in Myanmar.
  10. Extending the ceasefire with both outfits outfits remains central strategy of the Government s conflict management policy in Nagaland.
  11. The present demand s of  NSCN are a) recognition of sovereignty of Nagaland b) Unification of all Naga dominated areas of neighboring states as greater Nagalim

Naga civil society

Naga Hoho - apex tribal council of the nagas, Naga Mothers associations, church  etc played an active role for strengthening of peace strategy and kept the naga factions away from arms.

 

The torturous road to Naga peace

 

  1. Government of India inspite of engaging NSCN (IM) and other factions . Kept NSCN( Khaplang) away from the negotiations. It provoked Khaplang faction to form a United national liberational front of west southeastasia with ULFA, KLA, NDFB.
  2. Government of India engaging in talks with factions of NSCN(Khaplang) further irritated him and it is the major reason for breaking away from cease fire. The Meitei groups in manipur also developed working relations UNLFWSEA.

The major issues in the fight against Naga Insurgency are

  1. The state Government is never kept in the picture.
  2. The civil society which is majorily responsible for peace in Nagaland  are not given a due role.

 

 

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