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Daily News Analysis 17-06-2015

S.NO.

NEWS   ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE   OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

Modis Ramzan gesture to Pakistan fishermen (Pg 10)

a)     I.R

a)     PM Modi announced that India would   release detained Pakistani fishermen as a gesture of peace to mark the holy   month of Ramzan.

2.

Will India phase out fossil fuels as pledged by G7   nations? (Page 7)

a)     International

b)     National

a)     After G7 countries committed to phase   out fossil fuel consumption by 2100 in Germany recently, is it time that   India also followed this goal?

3.

UN envoy hails 19th amendment (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     The 19th   Constitutional Amendment (expecting the dilution of powers of the Executive   Presidency and other constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka) has come in for   appreciation of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.

4.

Russia to get 40 new ICBMs this year (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     In a blunt   reminder of the nations nuclear might among tensions with the West over   Ukraine, President Putin said that Russias military this year alone will   receive over 40 new intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of showing   any missile defences.

5.

Al-Qaeda deputy leader killed in Yemen (Page 12)

a)     International

a)   The deputy   leader of Al-Qaeda (Nasser al-Wuhayshi) has been killed in a US bombing in   Yemen, removing the director of a string of attacks against the West and a   man once seen as a successor to leader Ayman al-Zawahri.

6.

Kurds  capture  Syrian border  town    from  IS (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     Kurdish   fighters seized control of a key border town from the Islamic State group,   cutting a major supply line in the biggest setback yet for the jihadists in   Syria.

7.

SC asks Centre to prove Assemblies debated NJAC Bill (Page   11)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     As various   States came out in support of NJAC, the Supreme Court asked the Centre to   provide proof that the new law on judicial appointments was debated on the   floors of the Assemblies before ratification.

8.

Going all out for neutrino research (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     S&T

a)     India lost   its lead in neutrino studies when research tapered off in 1990s. India-based   Neutrino Observatory can now help it reclaim this advantage and its global   leadership in understanding this mysterious particle.

9.

Trade deficit narrows, but exports continue to fall (Page   1,10)

a)     Economy

a)     Though the   trade deficit has narrowed, exports and imports have contracted for the sixth   month in a row in May.

10.

ADB to increase India lending by 50 % to $12 b by 2018   (Page 13)

a)     Economy

a)     Asian   Development Bank proposes to increase lending to India by almost 50 percent   to $12 billion by 2018.

11.

ISRO plans to launch satellites for UK on July 10 (Page 6)

a)     S&T

a)     The ISRO has   planned to launch three satellites of Disaster Monitoring Constellation for   United Kingdom-based Surrey Satellite Technology Limited on July 10.

12.

Kerala to get countrys first bird atlas (Page 6)

a)     National

b)     Geography

a)     Indian Bird   Conservation Network will soon compile a bird atlas of Kerala, which will be   the first bird atlas of an Indian State.

 

S.NO.

NEWS   ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT   POINTS

1.         

 

Modis Ramzan gesture to Pakistan fishermen (Page 10)

a)     I.R

a)     India –   Pakistan relations

b)     Border   disputes

c)     SAARC    

a)     PM Modi announced that India would release   detained Pakistani fishermen as a gesture of peace to mark the holy month of   Ramzan.

b)     Modi (who   called Afghan President Ashraf Ghani, Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina and Pak PM   Nawaz Sharif to convey his wishes for Ramzan) has reached out to these SAARC   leaders, restating Indias commitment to peace in the region.

c)     The gesture   comes barely a week after the two countries were engaged in a war of words,   over Indias decision to deny a visa to an official deputed to the Pakistani   High Commission in Delhi.

2.

Will India phase out fossil fuels as pledged by G7   nations? (Page 7)

a)     International

b)     National

a)     Climate   change

b)     Greenhouse   gas emissions

c)     Intended   Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC)

d)     Green Climate   Fund (GCF)

e)     United   Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

f)     2015 Paris climate   summit

 

a)     After G7 countries committed to phase out   fossil fuel consumption by 2100 in Germany recently, is it time that India   also followed this goal. While some climate experts argue that should be the   case, others say that developed countries have a greater share of   responsibility, which they have not lived up to as yet, and it is they that   need to be pressured to do more.

b)     A senior   economist said the long-term goals for decarbonisation in the G7 communique   are not matched by commitments on emission reduction that they have tabled   for 2020 and 2030. These countries should have cut fossil fuel consumption   long ago.

c)     In fact, the   latest report shows that 1.5 degree Celsius is desired global average surface   temperature we should be aiming for and even 2 degree Celsius is unsafe. For   this 40-70 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are required by   2050, which wont be achieved by pushing the goal to 2100.

d)     After   US-China deal on climate change came through in November last year, there   have been expectations that India too would commit itself to an emissions   target. But no consensus with regard to cutting fossil fuel consumption was   reached at the UNFCCC sessions which concluded on June 11 at Bonn, Germany.

e)     No headway   has also been made in determining Indias INDC for the 2015 Paris agreement.   Any decision on this front made by India would be keeping in mind our   development and growth requirements.

f)     Expert said   that Indias coal consumption had not reached the same levels as Chinas for it   to commit to a peaking year as China did last year. According to him, for   India to be able to phase out fossil fuels it would require financial support   from the $100 billion GCF available per year till 2020. However, European   countries are not willing to extend this assistance, on the grounds that   India is a rich country.

3.

UN envoy hails 19th amendment (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     Sri Lankas   internal issues

b)     19th Constitutional Amendment

c)     UNHRC

a)     The 19th Constitutional Amendment (expecting   the dilution of powers of the Executive Presidency and other constitutional   reforms in Sri Lanka) has come in for appreciation of the UN High   Commissioner for Human Rights.

b)     He called upon the Sri Lankan govt to   consult broadly with all political parties, civil society, and victims and   their families to ensure full national support and ownership of the   processes.

4.

Russia to get 40 new ICBMs this year (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     Russias military

b)     Inter-Continental   Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)

c)     Ukraine   crisis

a)     In   a blunt reminder of the nations nuclear might among tensions with the West   over Ukraine, President Putin said that Russias military this year alone will   receive over 40 new ICBM capable of showing any missile defences.

b)     He also noted that military was to start   testing its new long- range early warning radar intended to monitor the   western direction and later will deploy another one in the east.

5.

Al-Qaeda deputy leader killed in Yemen (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     Al-Qaeda

b)     Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

c)     Yemen crisis

d)     Tora Bora caves

a)     The deputy leader of Al-Qaeda (Nasser   al-Wuhayshi) has been killed in a US bombing in Yemen, removing the director   of a string of attacks against the West and a man once seen as a successor to   leader Ayman al-Zawahri.

b)     He was also   leader of AQAP and his death potentially weakens the group, widely seen as   the militant networks strongest branch.

c)     He is sixth   major AQAP leader killed in suspected US bombings this year, despite   political disorder in Yemen that led to closing of US embassy and evacuation   of its military and intelligence personnel.

d)     He was Osama   bin Ladens secretary and close aide. He accompanied Osama to the caves of   Tora Bora when they escaped following US invasion.

e)    AQAP aims to defeat   Saudi monarchy and Yemeni govt and form and Islamic caliphate. It was   responsible for Riyadh bombings in 2003 and attack on US embassy in Sanaa in   2008.

6.

Kurds  capture  Syrian border  town    from  IS (Page 12)

a)     International

a)     Islamic State (IS)

b)     Syria crisis

c)     Kurdish fighters

d)     Tal Abyad

a)     Kurdish fighters seized control of a key   border town from IS group, cutting a major supply line in biggest setback yet   for the jihadists in Syria.

b)     From across the frontier in Turkey, the   Kurds and allied Syrian rebels could be seen raising their banners in place   of the black IS flag and taking up positions at the Tal Abyad border post.

c)    Kurdish forces now control around 400 km of   contiguous border territory from Kobane in Aleppo province to northeastern Syria.

7.

SC asks Centre to prove Assemblies debated NJAC Bill (Page   11)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     National Judicial Appointments Commission   (NJAC)

b)     99th Constitution Amendment

c)     Collegium system

d)     Article 124 of the Constitution

e)     Supreme Court

f)     High Court

g)     CJI

 

a)     As various States came out in support of NJAC,   Supreme Court asked the Centre to provide proof that the new law on judicial   appointments was debated on the floors of the Assemblies before ratification.

b)     A five-judge   Constitution Bench (headed by Justice J.S. Khehar) voiced doubt as Centre and   Gujarat said the NJAC was the will of the people and a product of unanimous   public and legislative support.

c)    So far, 20   Assemblies have ratified the 99th Constitution Amendment incorporating the   NJAC in place of collegium in Article 124 of the Constitution on judicial   appointments.

d)     Various   States ruled by the BJP came out in support of the Centre in defending the   NJAC before Supreme Court during the day-long hearing on public interest   litigation petitions challenging the constitutional validity of the law.

8.

Going all out for neutrino research (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     S&T

a)     Neutrino research

b)     India-based   Neutrino Observatory (INO)

c)     Iron   Calorimeter (ICAL)

d)     Geoneutrinos

e)     Neutrino   Tomography

f)     Kolar Gold   Field Lab

g)     Plutonium-239

h)     Uranium-238

i)     Nilgiris

j)     Bodi West   Hills

a)     Just a few years ago, the authors (Abdul   Kalam and his adviser Srijan Pal Singh) witnessed how a national project that   the INO (which is to study fundamental particles called neutrinos) was   subject to a barrage of questions from environmentalists, politicians and   others ever since it was cleared.

b)     The project (which   involves the construction of an underground laboratory) was initially to be   located in the Nilgiris but later was moved to a cavern under a rocky   mountain in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110   kilometres west of Madurai in Tamil Nadu.

c)     India has   been among the pioneers in neutrino research, the first of such laboratories   having been established in the 1960s. They led neutrino research when our   physicists used a gold mine at Kolar in Karnataka to set up what was then the   worlds deepest underground laboratory. This was called the Kolar Gold Field   Lab.  In 1965, it enabled researchers   to detect atmospheric neutrinos.

d)     Most of the   advanced countries are already working strongly in neutrino science with   dedicated labs. These include the US, Russia, France, Italy, China, Japan and   South Korea. India is set to not only join this league, but also become a key   player in global efforts in neutrino science. The Magnetized Iron Calorimeter   being set up at INO will be among largest ever in world, weighing over 50,000   tonnes.

e)     Neutrinos (first   proposed by Swiss scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930) are the second most   widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the   particle which makes up light. In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us   that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right   through each of us.

f)    This is the   reason why INO needs to be built deep into the earth - 1300 metres into the   earth. At this depth, it would be able to keep itself away from all the   trillions of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere and which would otherwise block   an over-the-ground neutrino detector. Neutrinos have been in the universe   literally since forever, being almost 14 billion years old - as much as the   universe itself.

g)     Neutrinos   occur in three different types or flavours: v(-e),  vμ and vτ. These are separated in terms of   different masses. From experiments so far, we know that neutrinos have a tiny   mass, but the ordering of the neutrino mass states is not known and is one of   the key questions that remain unanswered till today. This is a major   challenge INO will set to resolve, thus completing our picture of the   neutrino.

h)     Neutrinos are   very important for our scientific progress and technological growth for three   reasons. First, they are abundant. Second, they have very feeble mass and no   charge and hence can travel through planets, stars, rocks and human bodies   without any interaction. Third, they hide within them a vast pool of   knowledge and could open up new vistas in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics,   communication and even in medical imaging, through the detector spin-offs.

i)     While this   should be a moment of joy, there is also some doubt, partly arising due to   the fact that neutrino (though so abundant) is a silent stranger to most   people. According to authors, neutrinos are least harmful of all elementary   particles, as they almost never react with solid bodies.

j)     They said neutrinos   may have a role to play in nuclear non-proliferation through the remote   monitoring of nuclear reactors. The plutonium-239 which is made via nuclear   transmutation in reactor from uranium-238 can potentially be used in nuclear   devices by terrorist groups. Using appropriate neutrino detectors, the   plutonium content can be monitored remotely and used to detect any pilferage.   Neutrino research can be our answer to ensure that no terror group ever   acquires nuclear weapons.

k)     Understanding   neutrinos can help us detect mineral and oil deposits deep in the earth.   Neutrinos tend to change their flavour depending on how far they have   travelled and how much matter they have passed through in the way. They said   we believe that this same property might help us detect early geological   defects deep within the earth, and thereby might be our answer to an early   warning system against earthquakes.

l)     This is where   an area of Geoneutrinos is applicable.    First found in 2005, they are produced by the radioactive decay of   uranium, thorium and potassium in the Earths crust and just below it. Rapid   analysis of these Geoneutrinos by neutrino monitoring stations (a process   called Neutrino Tomography) could provide us vital seismological data which   can detect early disturbances and vibrations produced by earthquakes.

m)     As we know,   neutrinos can pass right through the earth. They may open up a faster way to   send data than the current around the earth model, using towers, cables or   satellites.  Such a communication   system using neutrinos will be free of transmission losses as neutrinos   rarely react with the atoms in their path. This can open up new vistas for   telecom and Internet services. Some scientists further believe that if there   is any extraterrestrial form of life, neutrinos will also be the fastest and   most trusted way to communicate with them.

n)     Neutrinos are   information bearers of the universe - which are almost never lost in their   path. Indias effort in studying neutrinos at INO may help us unravel the   deepest mystery of the universe - why there is more matter than antimatter in   the universe.

o)    Some   scientists believe that formidable neutrino research can help us understand   dark matter. Dark matter and dark energy make up 95 percent of the universe,   far more predominant than ordinary matter in the universe but we hardly   understand it. Neutrinos are only way to detect this great mystery which may   completely change our understanding of the universe and physics. Searches for   this dark matter can only be carried out in INO.

p)   The authors   said we believe that the neutrino is our mode of access to some of the most   unimaginable technologies and with INO, India is poised to take its rightful   place at the helm of neutrino research.   

9.

Trade deficit narrows, but exports continue to fall (Pages   1 and10)

a)     Economy

a)     Trade deficit

b)     Indias   imports and exports

c)     Economic   growth

d)     GDP

a)     Though the trade deficit has narrowed,   exports and imports have contracted for the sixth month in a row in May.

b)     With   countries such as the US and China facing growth challenges, even the export   outlook remains dull. A substantial reduction in the oil import bill, due to   declining international prices, primarily helped overall imports contract.

c)     Exports   continue to soften with no visible pick-up in global growth. At present,   growth in the US is in the negative. Chinas growth has decelerated to a   six-year-low. And, only a slight growth can be seen in the Euro area and   Japan. The poor growth outlook will impact our export growth. On other hand,   import growth may bounce back if gold imports continue trending up.

10.

ADB to increase India lending by 50 % to $12 b by 2018   (Page 13)

a)     Economy

a)     Asian Development Bank (ADB)

b)     Indias   economic growth

c)     GDP

d)     Monetary   policy

e)     Inflation

f)     RBI

a)     ADB   President said it proposes to increase lending to India by almost 50 percent   to $12 billion by 2018.

b)     ADB aims at increasing its sovereign and   non-sovereign lending from the present $7-9 billion in 3 years from 2015-17   to $10-12 billion between 2016 and 2018 using ADBs expanded lending capacity.

c)   On Indias growth prospects, he said the   countrys growth rate was expected to exceed that of China in this year.   Indias projected growth rate of 7.8 percent for the 2015-16 fiscal was higher   than Chinas estimated 7.2 percent in 2015 calendar year.

d)     ADB also made a case for further   lowering of interest rate by RBI saying the key policy rate is not   excessively low and can be brought down if inflation is lower.

11.

ISRO plans to launch satellites for UK on July 10 (Page 6)

a)     S&T

a)     Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellites

b)     Surrey   Satellite Technology Limited

c)     PSLV

d)    Satish Dhawan   Space Centre

e)     ISRO

a)     The ISRO has planned to launch three   satellites of Disaster Monitoring Constellation for UK-based Surrey Satellite   Technology Limited on July 10.

b)     The satellites (DMC 1, 2 and 3) will be   launched onboard a PSLV from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota and   the launch window was being worked out.

12.

Kerala to get countrys first bird atlas (Page 6)

a)     National

b)     Geography

a)     Bird atlas

b)     Indian Bird   Conservation Network

c)     Important   Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)

a)     Indian Bird Conservation Network will soon   compile a bird atlas of Kerala, which will be the first bird atlas of an   Indian State.

b)     A bird atlas gives precise distribution   pattern of birds in a region and when put together over a period of time,   provides accurate trends of bird presence.

c)     Kerala currently has 24 Important Bird   and Biodiversity Areas. Eleven more have been identified.

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