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Daily News Analysis 16-07-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

90 percent of enclave dwellers give choice of nation (Page 16)

a)     I.R

a)     India and Bangladesh will complete a survey asking each of the 51,000 people living in 162 enclaves on the border to give their choice of citizenship of either nation. The survey precedes the exchange of enclaves between the two nations under the Land Boundary Agreement signed during visit of PM Modi to Dhaka a month ago.

2.

Showing spine at the WTO negotiations (Page 14)

a)     I.R

a)    With just weeks left for WTO members to finalise the post-Bali work programme under Doha Round, India must be ready with a robust strategy to counter being wrongly blamed for lack of progress in the negotiations.

3.

Indian among 20 detained in China for terrorist links (Page 17)

a)     International

a)     Chinese authorities have detained 20 foreigners (including one Indian) for suspected terrorist links - a move that brings into sharper focus, Beijings growing activism to counter Uighur extremism in the Xinjiang province.

4.

The manufactured crisis is over (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Even as world leaders showed signs of normalising ties with Iran, its Foreign Minister said a deal with world powers ended a manufactured crisis over Irans nuclear programme.

5.

Greek Parliament votes as IMF calls for debt relief (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Just hours after a shocking IMF report criticised the deal, Greece geared up for a parliamentary vote on tough reforms demanded by Eurozone creditors in exchange for a huge new bailout.

6.

New Trade Union Bill seen as more draconian than Thatcher labour laws (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Treasury and Opposition benches clashed in the British Parliament over the new Trade Union Bill introduced, which if passed will restrict the right of unions to resort to industrial action.

7.

Mullah Omar endorses peace talks (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Saying that negotiating with the enemy is not prohibited in Islam, a message claimed to be from Taliban leader Mullah Omar has endorsed recent talks between Taliban and Afghan government officials.

8.

Explaining Islamic extremism (Page 15)

a)     International

a)     To imagine that there is a single, religious rationale to the terror that is rocking the Islamic world is to miss its complex vulnerable area.

9.

States want freedom to frame their own land acquisition laws (Pages 1, 16 and 17)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     It was a govt in retreat, as the Centre agreed to consider a demand from the States that they be allowed flexibility to frame their own laws for land acquisitions or continue to look for a consensus on The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (Amendment) Second Ordinance 2015.

10.

SC refuses to lift stay on States power to release lifers (Pages 1,16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     A Constitution Bench of the Supreme refused to lift its order staying State govts from releasing life convicts, including former PM Rajiv Gandhis killers, on remission of sentences.

11.

Free speech muzzled, apex court told (Pages 1 and 16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Pushing strongly for de-criminalisation of defamation, political leaders across the spectrum argued in the Supreme Court that continuing with defamation as a penal offence under a colonial law muzzles free speech in a modern welfare state where truth and public debate are considered the greatest ways to good governance.

12.

A pernicious law (Page 14)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)    The Union govts contention in the Supreme Court that the provisions in the Indian Penal Code on criminal defamation do not have a chilling effect on free speech will disappoint proponents of fundamental freedoms.

13.

SC reserves verdict on NJAC (Page 16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     After marathon court hearings spanning over a month, the Supreme Court reserved its judgment on the constitutionality of the NDA govts National Judicial Appointments Commission laws replacing the Collegium system of judicial appointments to the highest courts.

14.

RBI sets up panel on financial inclusion (Page 19)

a)     Economy

a)    The RBI plans to come out with a medium term five-year measurable action plan for financial inclusion in the country.

15.

Ottappalam to have Indias first defence industrial park (Page 13)

a)     National

b)     S&T

a)    In a major boost to industrial infrastructure in the Palakkad region, the Union governments Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion has approved a proposal from the Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation to set up the countrys first defence industrial park at Ottappalam.

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

90 percent of enclave dwellers give choice of nation (Page 16)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Bangladesh relations

b)     Land Boundary Agreement (LBA)

 

a)     India and Bangladesh will complete a survey asking each of the 51,000 people living in 162 enclaves on the border to give their choice of citizenship of either nation. The survey precedes exchange of enclaves between two nations under the LBA signed during visit of PM Modi to Dhaka a month ago.

b)     Sources said that while most Bangladeshi nationals on Indian side wanted to remain in India, the decision of Indians on the Bangladeshi side would depend on the compensation offered for their lands.

c)    Union govt first announced a compensation package of Rs. 3000 crore for Indians who cross over into West Bengal, but later clarified that depending on how many moved here, the sum could dip to as low as Rs. 775 crore.

d)     Once the survey results are collected, officials from both countries will draw up lists of those who wish to stay on their side and those who wish to cross over and complete the full exchange of residents by November 30.

2.

Showing spine at the WTO negotiations (Page 14)

a)     I.R

a)     World Trade Organization (WTO)  

b)     Bali Ministerial Conference of the WTO

c)     Doha Round

d)     Nairobi Ministerial Conference of WTO

 

a)     With just a few weeks left for WTO members to finalise the post-Bali work programme under the Doha Round, the season for wrongfully blaming India for the deadlock in multilateral trade negotiations at the WTO is back.

b)     The stand being taken by developed countries suggests that they are not willing to abide by what had been agreed to earlier in Doha negotiations. In contrast, they are pressuring India to take commitments that were not even contemplated during the negotiations. Further, they have stalled negotiations on a permanent solution to the problem of public stockholding for food security.

c)    This poses triple challenges for the govt - securing Indias interests in multilateral trade negotiations; explaining its negotiating position to its key trade partners, and fighting the perception battle in the media. How Department of Commerce and other key arms of the govt struggle with these challenges will determine whether India will be wrongly blamed for a lack of progress in negotiations.

d)     As decided at the 2013 Bali Ministerial Conference of the WTO, the post-Bali work programme is required to build on the decisions taken at Bali on agriculture, development and least-developed countries  issues, as well as all other issues under the Doha mandate that are central to concluding Doha Round. It is also expected to provide for a permanent solution to the problem of public stockholding for food security purposes, an issue that was partially resolved at Bali through the peace clause.

e)     Over the past six months, WTO members have engaged intensively to address some of key impediments in successful completion of the Doha Round. With the objective of showing some concrete outcomes by the Nairobi Ministerial Conference of WTO, the Director General of WTO has repeatedly urged countries to focus on issues that are doable for all members and not just for some.

f)   This has provided an escape route to the developed countries to ward off demands for cuts in their farm subsidies. This is one of the central issues in the Doha Round, on which significant progress was already made by July 2008. But the developed countries are now using various plans to turn out of their part of negotiating deal on agriculture.

g)     It is an open secret that a lowering of ambition on farm subsidies is a thinly covered attempt at shielding US from taking commitments that might require it to make changes to its recent Farm Act.  Ironically, a lowering of ambition in farm subsidies is sought to be limited only to the developed countries.

h)     Developments in Geneva suggest that the developed countries are aggressively seeking onerous commitments from India and China that are not part of negotiating agenda on farm subsidies and were not even contemplated during entire course of Doha Round.

i)     These relate to reducing flexibilities for granting subsidies on agriculture inputs and imposing fixed monetary ceilings on certain categories of farm support provided by India and China. Thus, it would be low ambition for commitments by the developed countries, but extremely high ambition for obligations by India and China.

j)     Pressuring developing countries (particularly India) to make concessions that go beyond the negotiating mandate is a part of strategy effectively deployed by the developed countries in the course of the Doha Round whereby they have deflected attention from their own repeated failures to do their part for a possible trade deal.

k)   India has proved to be a soft target in the past for papering over negotiating inaction by the developed countries. The example of sectoral initiatives in tariffs is particularly relevant.

l)     Agreeing to commitments sought from it would limit the policy space of govt in respect of certain categories of farm subsidies. This could threaten the livelihood of millions of farm households and further worsen agrarian distress. India is fully within its rights to resist pressures for commitments that are beyond agreed negotiating mandate.

m)     However, a resolute stand by India against unjustified and onerous demands being made on it would provide grounds to developed countries to blame India, if the post-Bali work programme is not agreed upon by the end of this month, or the Nairobi Ministerial Conference in December 2015 fails to deliver significant results.

n)   According to the author, Indias response should have at least four distinct dimensions. First, at the WTO, India should unequivocally resist requests for concessions that are beyond the negotiating mandate. The govt would need to replicate the resolve and firmness shown by it last year during the deadlock on trade facilitation and food security issues.

o)     India should also actively urge support from other developing countries for ensuring that the Doha Round is not concluded without the developed countries making meaningful cuts in their farm support. It should also seek simplification in tariff structure of the EU, which is extremely complex and delays farm exports of developing countries.

p)     Second, the Department of Commerce and the Ministry of External Affairs should work closely to clearly articulate Indias negotiating approach to the capital-based officials of its key trade partners. India should clearly bring out unreasonable demands being made on it and explain how the responsibility for slow progress in the negotiations actually lies on the developed countries.

q)     Third, the Department of Commerce should regularly brief the media about key developments in negotiations for ensuring that the battle of perception is not lost. Otherwise, there is a risk that the govts perspective might get drowned in the campaign by commentators sympathetic to the economic interests of the developed countries.

r)     Fourth, govt should assure stakeholders (particularly the farming community) that it would not bend under unfair demands and pressures of the developed countries. In absence of such an assurance, the farmers may feel apprehensive about continuity in government support schemes for agriculture.

s)     It is important that the govt works out a detailed strategy for each of these four dimensions. Failure to act decisively and firmly on any of these aspects could result in devastating consequences for the country.

3.

Indian among 20 detained in China for terrorist links (Page 17)

a)     International

a)     Uighur extremism

b)     East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)  

a)     Chinese authorities have detained 20 foreigners (including one Indian) for suspected terrorist links - a move that brings into sharper focus, Chinas growing activism to counter Uighur extremism in the Xinjiang province.

b)     The arrests follow repatriation of 109 Uighurs (an ethnic group mostly residing in Xinjiang) from Thailand last week.

c)     China has been cracking down on the supporters of the ETIM, run mainly by Uighurs, but which is known to possess international links. Chinese authorities claim that some of the disaffected members of Uighur community have been trying to travel to Syria and Iraq to join terror groups.

4.

The manufactured crisis is over (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Iran – P5+1 nuclear deal

b)     Irans nuclear programme

c)     P5+1 group

d)     UNSC

e)     IAEA

a)     Even as world leaders showed signs of normalising ties with Iran, its Foreign Minister said a deal with world powers ended a manufactured crisis over Irans nuclear programme.

b)     In return for curbs on its nuclear programme for at least 10 years, Iran will be freed from Western and UN sanctions that have damaged its economy.

c)     Iran and the P5+1 would submit the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action to the UNSC for adoption without delay. The EU will then promptly endorse the resulting resolution. EU Foreign Ministers will sign off on the agreement in Brussels on June 20.

d)     In September, Rupublican-controlled US Congress is to give its verdict on the plan. Iranian govt will seek approval for the agreement from the Supreme National Security Council and Parliament.

e)     In November, Irans implementation of the deal will take about four months, or until November. In December, the UNs atomic watchdog IAEA will issue a report on whether Iran has complied with nuclear-related measures.

f)     In Jan 2016, If Iran has respected its engagements, the EU, UN and US will gradually begin to lift their sanctions. In 5 years, a UN arms ban on Iran will be lifted. In 8 years, if the IAEA determines that Irans nuclear activities have stayed peaceful, the EU will terminate any remaining sanctions.

g)     When 10-year limitations of the deal expire, Iran will be able to use the more modern centrifuge technology. The UNSC would no longer be seized of the Iran nuclear issue and will close the file.

5.

Greek Parliament votes as IMF calls for debt relief (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Greece debt crisis

b)     European Union (EU)

c)     European Commission

d)     European Central Bank (ECB)

e)     International Monetary Fund (IMF)

a)     Just hours after a shocking IMF report criticised the deal, Greece geared up for a parliamentary vote on tough reforms demanded by Eurozone creditors in exchange for a huge new bailout.

b)     The outcome was unclear after the IMF issued a stark warning that Greeces creditors will have to go far beyond existing estimates for debt relief to stabilise countrys finances.

c)    The last-minute deal struck to prevent the country crashing out of the euro saw PM Tsipras agree to sweeping reforms. They include changing labour laws, pensions, VAT and other taxes - all conditions that had been rejected by voters in a July 5 referendum.

d)     The Parliament in Athens must approve deal before the 18 other Eurozone leaders start negotiations over what Greece is to get in return - a three-year bailout worth up to €86 billion ($95 billion), its third rescue programme in five years.

6.

New Trade Union Bill seen as more draconian than Thatcher labour laws (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     British Labour reforms

b)     New Trade Union Bill

c)     Thatcher labour laws

d)     British Constitution

a)     Treasury and Opposition benches clashed in the British Parliament over the new Trade Union Bill introduced, which if passed will restrict the right of unions to resort to industrial action.

b)    The announcement is being seen as an attempt not only to further restrict the right to strike, but to also neutralise the considerable political influence of British trade unions in Parliament.

c)     The new bill also sets a 4-month time limit for industrial action. It seeks also to reduce the money that unions currently have to campaign with or to donate (to parties such as Labour). 

d)     The present bill is seen as more draconian than the labour reforms brought in by the Thatcher government in 1985.

7.

Mullah Omar endorses peace talks (Page 18)

a)     International

a)     Taliban and Afghan government peace talks

b)     Afghanistan situation

 

 

a)     Saying that negotiating with enemy is not prohibited in Islam, a message claimed to be from Taliban leader Mullah Omar has endorsed recent talks between Taliban and Afghan government officials.

b)     The meeting was the first time in several years that the two sides have had an official sit-down. It has followed a series of informal meetings since May in China, Qatar and Norway.

c)     Omar (who was Talibans head of state from 1996) has not been seen in public since US-led coalition overthrown his government in 2001.

8.

Explaining Islamic extremism (Page 15)

a)     International

a)     Islamic Extremism

b)     Boko Haram

c)     Kanuri tribe

d)     Hausa language

e)     Shammar tribe

f)     Islamic State

g)     Syria and Iraq crisis

a)     For well over a decade, experts have narrowed their searchlights on religious stimuli to explain the extremism and disorder that has roiled much of the Islamic world. It was interpreted variously as a fight against Christianity, a jihad against non-believers, or a war against irreligious rulers.

b)     To perpetrators of terror, these descriptions became an attractive war-cry to invoke the glorious history of Islamic conquests, rally the faithful, and convert them into mujahids (holy warriors). To opponents, it helped demonise the Islamists by labelling them as medieval anarchists or fanatics.

c)     However, the search for a Universal Theory of Islamic Extremism is misdirected. As always, the reality is more complex and also more dull. Without denying the role of religion, there may be other drivers at play, impacting the rise of Islamic extremism.

d)     Sociological divisions such as tribes and castes often predate organised religion. In some corners of contemporary Islamic world, hold of ethnicity is often comparable to that of religion. It is not an either-or situation, with religion often infused with long-prevailing tribal customs, which form a complex pattern of values providing identity and unity.

e)    For instance, Boko Harams main catchment area is Kanuri tribe in north-eastern Nigeria, as well as the 3 neighbouring countries of Niger, Cameroon and Chad. Boko Harams area of operations is predominantly Sunni Muslim, but the strong operational core consists mainly of Kanuris, who listen back to their golden pre-colonial era.

f)     The Kanuris were a proud civilisation till the early 20th century, who gained riches and prominence with their control of trans-African land trade routes.  The Boko Haram leadership has tried to widen its reach by using Hausa language with no spectacular results; their Hausa co-religionists remain doubtful.

g)     Similarly, Daesh has used the Shammar network, believed to be the largest and most powerful tribe of West Asia. Shammar are based in Hail in northern Saudi Arabia but with followers and sub-tribes in Iraq, Jordan, Syria and even Turkey.

h)     Islamic disorder can often be traced back to governance issues. Many of these countries have essentially been dictatorships backed by either armed forces or a dominant tribe. The system has usually lacked participation and is marked by maladministration, endemic corruption and repression. These factors (coupled with serious economic conditions) have created a combustible combination.

i)     The perceived lack of a strong central authority (in countries such as Somalia after Siad Barre or Libya after Muammar Qaddafi, as well as Iraq and Afghanistan after the US withdrawal) was seen as an open invitation for disparate groups to fill the political void.

j)     Therefore, it is that Islamic extremism is not monolithic. It is a serious threat with an impact well beyond its direct theatre of operations. However, ignoring the shades of the various stimuli that fuel it would only amount to repeating history, with similar outcomes.

9.

States want freedom to frame their own land acquisition laws (Pages 1, 16 and 17)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (LARR) Act 2013

b)     Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency

c)     Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

d)     Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC)

e)     NITI Aayog

a)     It was a govt in retreat, as the Centre agreed to consider a demand from the States that they be allowed flexibility to frame their own laws for land acquisitions or continue to look for a consensus on The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in LARR (Amendment) Second Ordinance 2015.

b)     Earlier, PM Modi assured the Chief Ministers that their suggestions would be factored in by the Centre in its final decision on the Land Bill.

c)     This is what emerged from the second meeting of the NITI Aayogs Governing Council chaired by the PM even though half of the 16 CMs who came were from BJP-ruled States, while another two were from Punjab and J&K, ruled by NDA allies, the Shiromani Akali Dal and Peoples Democratic Party.

d)     Punjab CM Prakash Singh Badal stressed that land should not be acquired without consent of owners, that the SIA clause should apply to all acquisitions and takeover (whether for State or Central projects) should be left to State governments.

10.

SC refuses to lift stay on States power to release lifers (Pages 1 and 16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Remission of death sentences

b)     Rajiv Gandhi assassination case

c)     Supreme Court

d)     High Court

a)     A Constitution Bench of the Supreme refused to lift its order staying State govts from releasing life convicts (including former PM Rajiv Gandhis killers) on remission of sentences.

b)     The issue reached the apex court after TN decided to remit the sentences of all seven convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case, after the SC commuted their death sentence.

c)     The Bench headed by CJI Dattu will also have to decide whether life imprisonment (after commutation) means rest of life or a whether the convict has a right to claim remission after completing 14 years of the prison sentence.

d)     The Bench would have to decide whether a court should hear the family of the victim of a crime before commuting the death penalty. Again, whether the familys wishes should be considered before the State govt remits the sentences of a death penalty prisoner.

e)     The Supreme Court had on July 9 2014, restrained all States from exercising power of remission for releasing convicts serving life sentences.

11.

Free speech muzzled, apex court told (Pages 1 and 16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Criminal defamation law

b)     Sections 499 and 500 (defamation) of the IPC

c)     Article 19 (1) of the Constitution

d)     Article 19 (2) of the Constitution

e)     Supreme Court

 

a)     Pushing strongly for de-criminalisation of defamation, political leaders across the spectrum argued in Supreme Court that continuing with defamation as a penal offence under a colonial law muzzles free speech in a modern welfare state where truth and public debate are considered greatest ways to good governance.

b)     Hearing a batch of petitions, a Bench saw leaders converge in their opinion that criminal defamation restrained freedom of speech and expression under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution, even if the speech made was truthful and meant to promote public debate of matters in the public domain.

c)     A senior advocate questioned the reasonableness of the restraint imposed on an expression based on truth or a reasonable belief by Sections 499 and 500 (criminal defamation) of the IPC.

d)     He argued that the state has no compelling interest in restricting free speech under Article 19(1) between or among private persons. Free speech restrictions under Article 19(2) must necessarily originate from compelling state interest, not private interest.

12.

A pernicious law (Page 14)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Criminal defamation law

b)     Sections 499 and 500 (defamation) of the IPC

c)     Sections 199(1) and 199(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)

d)     United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression 

e)     Human Rights Committee of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

f)     Supreme Court

a)     Union govts contention in the Supreme Court that the provisions in IPC on criminal defamation do not have a chilling effect on free speech will disappoint proponents of fundamental freedoms.

b)     The zeal to retain a law that the state can use to restrain criticism is at the heart of the governments position. It also goes against democratic opinion in many jurisdictions that treats defamation essentially as a civil wrong, and not something to be remedied by the use of the states coercive police powers.

c)     United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression, the Human Rights Committee of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other  international bodies have called upon states to abolish criminal defamation, recognising that it intimidates citizens and prevents them from exposing wrongdoing.

d)     The grounds cited by the Centre now to justify the continuance of Sections 499 and 500 of the IPC (which deal with defamation and prescribe a maximum jail term of 2 years) are misleading.

e)     What it fails to see is that the main feature of criminal defamation is its potential for harassment. It is a tool that can be easily invoked and that enables allegedly defamed persons to drag anyone to courts across the country.

f)     Criminal defamation has a harmful effect on society: for instance, the state uses it as a means to pressure the media and political opponents into adopting self-censorship and unwarranted self-restraint; groups or sections claiming to have been hurt or insulted, abuse the process by initiating multiple proceedings in different places; and, more importantly, the prolonged process itself is a punishment.

g)     Criminal defamation should not be allowed to be an instrument in the hands of the state, especially when the CPC gives public servants an unfair advantage by allowing the states prosecutors to stand in for them when they claim to have been defamed by the media or political opponents.

h)     Thanks to past verdicts of the Supreme Court, the govt and its organs can no more file civil suits seeking damages for defamation, yet the harmful law of criminal defamation is invoked to restrain free speech. Even as the court deliberates the matter, the government ought to reconsider its stand and come out against the criminal defamation law.

13.

SC reserves verdict on NJAC (Page 16)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) law

b)     Collegium system

c)     Attorney General (AG)

d)     CJI

e)     Supreme Court

a)     After marathon court hearings spanning over a month, the Supreme Court reserved its judgment on the constitutionality of NDA govts NJAC laws replacing the Collegium system of judicial appointments to highest courts.

b)     The Bench questioned the top law officer on the judicial appointment laws future impact on independence of judiciary and justice delivery system.

c)     Justice Kurian Joseph intervened to ask whether the convention that the senior most judge in the Supreme Court becoming the CJI should be retained. To this, AG responded that the idea of NJAC is to allow some sort of flexibility.

14.

RBI sets up panel on financial inclusion (Page 19)

a)     Economy

a)     Financial inclusion

b)     RBI

a)    The RBI plans to come out with a medium term five-year measurable action plan for financial inclusion in country. It has also set up a committee to work out this plan.

b)     The panel would suggest a monitorable medium-term action plan for financial inclusion in terms of its various components such as payments, deposit, credit, social security transfers, pension and insurance.

c)     It would also study cross-country experiences in financial inclusion to identify key learning, particularly in the area of technology-based delivery models, which could inform our policies and practices.

15.

Ottappalam to have Indias first defence industrial park (Page 13)

a)     National

a)     Defence industrial park

b)     Ottappalam

c)     Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)

d)     Modified Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme (MIIUS)

e)     Make in India initiative

a)     In a major boost to industrial infrastructure in the Palakkad region, Union govts DIPP has approved a proposal from the Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation to set up the countrys first defence industrial park at Ottappalam.

b)     The proposed park (which will be established as part of the Make in India, Make in Kerala project) will have modern common infrastructure facilities aimed at attracting component manufacturers in the defence industry. The Union govt has agreed to bring it under MIIUS.

c)     Official said Ottappalam was selected for defence park keeping in view its strategic location as far as connectivity was concerned. Apart from common facilities such as dedicated power and water supply, it will have a research and development centre.

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