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My Notes 29-07-2015

La excellence IAS

July 29, 2015

My notes – Dr.Rambabu

Compensatory afforestation fund bill

  1. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill is meant to manage and utilise thousands of crores of rupees that have been collected over the years as compensation for diverting forest land for “non-forest purposes” like setting up industries or infrastructure projects.
  2. An “institutional mechanism” will replace the Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) that currently exists but only in an “ad-hoc” manner. This ad-hoc CAMPA was created on the directions of a 2004 Supreme Court order, after its earlier order to establish a full-fledged CAMPA had not been complied with.
  3. The proposed legislation also seeks to provide safety, security and, transparency in utilisation of these amounts, which currently are being kept in nationalized banks and are being managed by an ad-hoc body. These amounts would be brought within broader focus of both Parliament and state legislatures, by transferring them to non-lapsable interest bearing funds, to be created under public accounts of the Union of India and each state.

Criticism of the bill

Threat of fragmentation -

  1.  It may lead to increasing diversion of forests in the name of development. The result is fragmentation, that is, the breaking up of large forest blocks into smaller and more vulnerable patches.
  2.  It is a n is one of the most serious threats to long-term biodiversity conservation, causing several devastating impacts; i.e, it disrupts landscape connectivity, affecting dispersal of animals, and creates new edges that expose forests to exploitation and severe degradation. For ex- The afforestation undertaken by the e Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL)  in the heart of Karnataka’s Kudremukh National Park, damaged the fragile eco system consisting of grassland and replacesd with plants with zero bio diversity value.

Poor results

  1. The empirical evidence shows that, there is a poor outcome from the previous afforestation programmes. In Maharashtra alone, only 13% is successful between 2004-14.The 2500 cr allocations under 12th FYP, has failed to show the results. So, the Government shall consider reclamation of degraded forests, rather than spending on afforestation.

 

Agrarian distress

  1. Subsidies - The developed nations offer much higher subsidies to the farmers on percapita basis . Fpr instance, in india $56 bn are offered to 120 mn , us offers $20 bn to 2mn , and EU 58bn euros to 20mn popln.
  2. Green revolution - It has degraded the fertility of the soil and increased the ulnerability of the farmers for crop failures.
  3. Unviability of small holdings- Many of the subsidies and bank loans given to the farmers are enjoyed by the people who has collateral and access to organised sector. Corruption, inefficiency, cost of inputs, debt are putting the small and marginal farmers at the brink of suicide.
  4. Only the households with greater than one hectare of land are able to earn more than their exenditure. But, in India they are less than 35% of farm households.

 

Talks with Taliban

Afghan-Taliban talks - Murree Talks

  1. The official stand of the India is that it is “supportive of the peace process” provided “it brings genuine peace and internationally accepted red lines”.
  2. In 2010, former President Hamid Karzai had listed these “red lines” as an acceptance of the Afghan Constitution; peace or a ceasefire as a pre-condition for talks; and following an “Afghan owned, Afghan-led” process. These all are violated in the present talks.
  3. Taliban representatives are pushing for the re-establishment of an Islamic Emirate, rather than the Constitution. In addition, the talks are being hosted by the Pakistan government, with senior ISI intelligence officials sitting in on all the discussions.
  4. No ceasefire agreement happened before the talks.

 

 

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