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My notes 10-09-2015

La excellence IAS

 

Sep 10, 2015

Online propaganda, Dealing with Hate speech, Effectiely

 

  1. Online Hate Speech it moves to fast over distances to many people.
  2. The fact of feeling more connected in a group can make a message more effective.
  3. The factor of anonymity brings in disinhibition effect.

All the above factors make Hate speeches of Islamic State to reach so fast and is becoming the major source of propoganda.

Traditionally, states tried methods such as censorship of the speech and punishment to the speaker. They can not be possible with the speed the message is spreading. Pre censorship, pro active igilance on the social media is also not possible. It has rebounding effect. For ex, Government ban on indias daughter proves this.

 

In this context, Ms Susan Benesch working on Dangerous speech project at Harvard University says that counter speech and not post facto censorship is most effective strategy in reducing the harm caused by dangerous speech.

 

Paznagar project in Myanmar - The frightening propaganda against Muslim minorities in Myanmar was effectively countered through opposite message offline and online.  The online opinion can also shift in the right direction astonishingly fast.

National register of citizens in Assam

 

  1. This nwhile exercise is set off only for Assam. It is meant for detection, detection, deportation of the illegal immigrants who crossed over to assam from Bangladesh on or after March 25, 1971.
  2. Bengalis are also integral part of this land from days of british. Till 1874, — transcending ethnicity, language and culture — lived within the same administrative jurisdiction and under the same political dispensation.
  3. In 1874 , two districts of East Bengal ( sylhet, gopalpara) seperated from Bengal province and joined with Assam.
  4. In 1905 - Bengal partition.
  5. Post Independence - Sylhet was lost to Pakistan. In 1971, Bangladesh has come in to existence.
  6. This repeated redrawing of political map of Assam, along with that of the twin valleys of Surma and Barak by the colonial rulers, showing utter disregard to the sentiments of the Assamese and the Bengalis has lead to some animosity between the groups.
  7. After Independence, Bengal settlers on Assam soil were being treated as cultural foreigners.
  8. The genesis of the anti-foreigner movement, spearheaded by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) during 1979-85, convinced the Indian establishment that a ‘marauding infiltration’ by Bangladeshi nationals from across the border was putting the Assamese language and culture in great danger. It culminated in the inking of the Assam Accord on August 14-15, 1985. This tripartite memorandum of settlement between the Centre, the Assam government and the AASU leadership was considered ‘historic’ in the Brahmaputra Valley.
  9. The Bengali speaking citizens in Assam now face a new kind of terror,this time, from the Indian government. On the strength of an agreement, the State government is now active in the preparation of the National Register of Citizens. This is aimed at labelling lakhs of Bengali-speaking citizens as ‘illegal Bangladeshi infiltrators’.
  10. The relevant rules and provisions in the statute book, including the Citizenship Act, 1955; the Foreigners Expulsion Act, 1946; the Immigrants (Expulsion from Assam) Act, 1950; the Foreigners Tribunals Order, 1964; and the Citizenship Rules, 2003 (as amended in 2009 and 2010), have all been very carefully crafted over the years to evict from Assam the Partition victims of erstwhile East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.
  11. The stringent set of conditions attached to the process requires the Bengalis of Assam to prove their Indian citizenship solely on the basis of their or their ancestors’ names appearing on the electoral rolls published up to 25 March 1971 and the NRC of 1951, failing which they would be thrown out of the updated NRC. Most of these registers were incomplete and faulty.
  12. Without any bilateral agreement between India and Bangladesh, these people are bound to become State less citizens. Is a  Rohingya like story is it unfolding in India?

 

 

Killing of rational thinkers and growing intolerance

 

  1. 1.       Killing of MM kalburgi - Kananda scholar
  2. 2.       Narendra dabholkar - MH
  3. 3.       Govind pansare - MH

 

 

  1. Article 25 of the Constitution not only allows the free profession, practice and propagation of a religion of one’s choice, but also an individual’s freedom of conscience. Atheists, agnostics and rationalists have the right to propagate their views on religion as much as believers have the right to spread theirs. What Article 25 guarantees is not a collective religious right but an individual’s freedom of choice.
  2. Political mobilisation along caste and communal lines gives such groups an enormous veto power, that strikes at the very root of freedom of speech and expression.

 

 

 

 

 

More wome  workers can boost growth - IMF chief

 

W-20 summit , Ankara , Turkey

 

Women labour participation will increase GDP - agents of change snd social transformation

If the number of female workers were to increase to the same level as the number of men, GDP in the United States would expand by 5 per cent, by 9 per cent in Japan, and by 27 per cent in India, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has estimated.

 

“Women’s empowerment is not just a fundamentally moral cause, it is also an absolute economic no-brainer.”

 

The Food and Agriculture Organisation, has estimated that giving women the same access to farming resources as men could increase output in developing countries by up to 4 per cent.

 

At their summit meeting last November, the G-20 pledged to reduce the gap in women’s labour force participation by 25 per cent by the year 2025, which would have the benefit of creating an estimated 100 million new jobs for the global economy

 

Three key policy areas for women’s economic empowerment, the IMF chief talked about, include those in education, the workplace and the family. So, cash transvers can be made conditional to girl child education as like in Bangladesh and cambodia.

Improving school infrastructure, physical access to the school, better sanitation all can improve the opportunities for girl child education.

 

In some countries, inspite of higher education, they still have low labour participation rate - The reasons include lack of access to finance , legal barriers , burden of child care etc.

 

Solutions suggested by IMF chief include

  1. Financial inclusion - In emerging and developing countries, 70 per cent of female-owned small and medium-sized enterprises are either unserved or under-served by financial institutions.
  2. Development of access - Without access to basic transport or energy sources, women find it very difficult to work outside the home.” In rural South Africa, for example, electrification increased female labour force participation by 9 per cent.
  3.  cutting the cost of childcare by half could increase the number of young mothers in the labour market by 10 per cent.
  4. Paid parental leave helps women to maintain connection with the labour market.

 

 

 

countries like Bangladesh are encouraging participation of women in the workforce. If they stay on track, their female workforce will grow from 34 to 82 per cent over the next decade, adding 1.8 percentage points to their GDP.

 

Critics will argue that in some countries where gender-specific laws exist, there is limited enforcement. While that is true, better rule of law is associated with having more gender-equal laws on the books. Specialised courts that tackle cases of acts of violence against women can help provide effective legal action. In Brazil, the Maria da Penha Law allowed for the creation of domestic and family violence courts.

 

In India, inheritance law reform has provided greater economic freedom to women. Women used their increased savings to spend twice as much money on their daughters’ education.

 

 The private sector benefits too. A survey of 6,500 firms showed that where women had greater representation on boards, those organisations were less likely to be hit by scandals like bribery or fraud. Yet, surprisingly, only nine countries have laws where at least one woman has to be a board member of a publicly listed company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gold Schemes

 

Gold monetization scheme

 

 

 

The prime objective of these plans is to curtail gold import into the country.

This will help in reducing the demand for physical gold by shifting a part of the estimated 300 tonnes of physical bars and coins purchased every year for investment into gold bonds. Since most of the demand for gold in India is met through imports, this scheme will, ultimately help in maintaining the country’s current account deficit within sustainable limits.

Gold Monetisation Scheme

The gold monetisation scheme is aimed to mobilise the surplus gold holdings held with Indian households and institutions as deposits.  “Under the scheme, gold lying idle with people can be deposited in banks and generate interest.

The return from these deposits is totally tax free. The deposited gold will be melted and make available for jewelers as raw material so as to restrict the increased dependence of imported gold.”

Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme

Under the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme, instead of buying gold in physical form investors can park their money in bonds which are backed by gold. The bonds will be available both in demat and paper form. These bonds will be issued in denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 grams of gold or other denominations.

Sovereign Gold Bond has more or equal advantage against the physical gold. The bond will be issued by RBI on behalf of the Government of India. The bond would be restricted for sale to resident Indian entities and the maximum allowable limit is 500 grams per person per year.

The government will issue bonds with an appropriate rate of interest and which shall be payable in terms of grams of gold. Banks/NBFCs/Post offices may be authorised to transact on these bonds on behalf of the Government for a fee. The bonds will be available in various denominations and the minimum tenor of the bond could be around 5 to 7 years.

These bonds can be used as collateral for loans. The Loan to Value ratio is to be set equal to ordinary gold loan mandated by the RBI from time to time. They can be easily sold and traded on exchanges to allow early exits for investors who may so desire. Capital gains tax treatment will be the same as for physical gold for an ‘individual’ investor.

On maturity, the redemption will be in rupee amount only. The rate of interest on the bonds will be calculated on the value of the gold at the time of investment. The principal amount of investment, which is denominated in grams of gold, will be redeemed at the price of gold at that time. If the price of gold has fallen from the time that the investment was made, or for any other reason, the depositor will be given an option to roll over the bond for three or more years.

KYC norms will be the same as that for gold.

 

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