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Daily News Analysis 26-09-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

Our march in step with UN vision: Modi (Page 1)

a)     I.R

a)     Presenting his govts domestic development agenda as completely in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals, PM Modi told a special summit of the UN that he came from a tradition that considered the entire world as one and the earth as our mother.

2.

Climate change on agenda for Obama meet (Pages 1 and 13)

a)     I.R

a)     The US administration has said the climate change will be a notable component of the agenda for meeting between US President Obama and PM Modi on Sept 28.

3.

India-Pak dispute finds echo in US (Page 13)

a)     I.R

a)      India has dismissed as inconsequential two letters written by Pakistan to the UN saying India is avoiding bilateral engagement and unilaterally building a wall along the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir.

4.

When India found a leader, but lost a statesman (Pg 11)

a)     I.R

a)    Narratives often understate PM Lal Bahadur Shastris significant contribution to the handling of 1965 conflict.

5.

US moots Sri Lankan judicial mechanism with foreign judges (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     A draft resolution in the UNHRC has mooted the participation of Commonwealth and other foreign judges in a Sri Lankan judicial mechanism to probe allegations of war crimes and violations of international humanitarian law.

6.

Making friends, influencing Nepal (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     The promulgation of Nepals Constitution has been followed by triumphalism on one side and agitation on the other. Indias present challenge is to recover lost political ground so that it can play the role of trusted interlocutor without resorting to micro-management.

7.

Obama, Xi reach pact on cyber spying (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     US President Obama said he and Chinese President Xi reached a common understanding on addressing cyber spying issues and agreed that neither would conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property.

8.

Abandon n-weapons, end wars, says Pope (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     In his inaugural address at UNGA session to adopt the 2030 global development agenda, Pope Francis urged world leaders to abandon nuclear weapons and end wars.

9.

Obama and Putin to finally meet (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     The meeting (to be held in New York, where both will be attending the annual session of the UN General Assembly) presents a challenge to Obama.

10.

Chennai Declaration seeks official status for all languages (Page 13)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     The Union govts purported plan to resurrect Hindi in Tamil Nadu has its resonance in parts of eastern India. A summit held in Chennai earlier this week to mark the 50th anniversary of anti-Hindi agitation had participants from West Bengal and Odisha, among other States.

11.

Signals point to better economic activity (Pgs 1,15)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian said that the economy is sending mixed signals.

12.

AP set to emerge as missile hub (Page 9)

a)     National

b)     S&T

a)    Indias largest missile systems manufacturing and integration facility with an investment of Rs. 500 crore is being set up on a sprawling 900-acre site at Palasamudram, Gorantla in Anantapur district of A.P.

13.

Tidal waves likely to hit Kerala coast, says INCOIS (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     Geography

a)    The State Emergency Operations Centre has issued guidelines to District Collectors for preparedness in view of the tidal flooding alert for the Kerala coast till Sept 30.

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

Our march in step with UN vision: Modi (Page 1)

a)     I.R

a)     Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

b)     UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

c)     Climate change

d)     Poverty

 

 

a)     Presenting his govts domestic development agenda as completely in alignment with the SDGs, PM Modi told a special summit of the UN that he came from a tradition that considered the entire world as one and the earth as our mother.

b)     Reiterating the Indian position on climate change, he emphasised the concept of common but differentiated responsibility, which is part of the UNFCCC.

c)     Modi outlined the various development targets that his government has set, and how special measures were being taken to ensure that they were environmentally sustainable.

d)     Pointing out that removing poverty is the biggest challenge before the world, he said it was the collective responsibility of all to work towards a world that is peaceful, a system that is just and development that is sustainable.  

2.

Climate change on agenda for Obama meet (Pages 1 and 13)

a)     I.R

a)     India – US relations

b)     Climate change

c)     Paris Climate Conference 2015

 

 

a)     The US administration has said the climate change will be a notable component of the agenda for meeting between US President Obama and PM Modi on Sept 28.

b)     Obama administration has been pressing the Modi govt to make more commitments to combat climate change and the PMs six-day tour of the US may give some signals about Indias position at the COP in Paris later this year.

3.

India-Pak dispute finds echo in US (Page 13)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Pakistan relations

b)     Border disputes

c)     Line of Control (LoC)

 

 

 

a)      India has dismissed as inconsequential two letters written by Pakistan to the UN saying India is avoiding bilateral engagement and unilaterally building a wall along the LoC in J&K.

b)     Official said the first letter written on September 4, states there was no bilateral dialogue. After that, the BSF and Pakistan Rangers have met. So the letter contradicted itself as there was a dialogue.

c)     The second letter about India building a wall is based on a submission made by Salahuddin (Hizbul Mujahideen chief Sayeed Salahuddin), who India considers a terrorist.

4.

When India found a leader, but lost a statesman (Page 11)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Pakistan relations

b)     Indo-Pakistan War 1965

c)     Kashmir issue

d)     Haji Pir Pass

e)     Kishen Ganga bulge

f)     UNSC

a)    According to the author, an excerpt reads that tributes to Shastris leadership: The PMs announcement in Parliament today of a cease-fire in fighting between India and Pakistan had an electrifying effect on the Members of Parliament and on the people. Members belonging to all political parties praised the PM for the firm, determined and able manner in which he handled the worsening India-Pakistan relations, which finally erupted in an undeclared war.

b)     It is interesting then that narratives often understate the tragically short-lived PM Lal Bahadur Shastris significant contribution to the handling of 1965 conflict. It is ironic that he was often accused of losing the war on the diplomatic table at Tashkent or remembered for the intrigue surrounding his death. Apart from political appropriation, very little ink seems to have been spent on examining his diplomatic and political acumen which made India stronger domestically and helped regain its international stature post the1965 crises.

c)     Shastris mandate was not an easy one. There was a fractured consensus within the Congress party around his ability to lead the nation after Jawaharlal Nehrus demise. India was demoralised after the 1962 defeat and battling an acute food crisis. Historians argue that Pakistans adventurism in 1965 wanted to take advantage of this alleged weakness in leadership.

d)     Contrary to expectations, Shastri had responded to Pakistani provocations on the border through speeches in Parliament from the very beginning, making Indias red lines clear. He was determined to convince President Khan that India had no desire whatsoever to acquire even one square inch of Pakistani territory but would never allow any interference by Pakistan in Kashmir which was an integral part of India.

e)     During the Rann of Kutch incident, a probing exercise by the Pakistani forces in early 1965, Shastri withstood immense pressure from the opposition to resolving the issue through an international tribunal. Having agreed to the ceasefire, his govt survived a no-confidence motion to defend the decision of arbitration.

f)     Politically, arbitration was seen as capitulation and many demanded its rollback. Shastri stood his ground, arguing India would not be a irresponsible nation, reneging on an international commitment, records Srivastava - a stance that would later bolster Indias position in the UNSC ceasefire dialogues.

g)     Shastris ability to lead and carry the nation in the face of surprise attacks was exemplified during the failed attempt by Pakistan to stir an uprising in Kashmir in August 1965. Shastri responded with a clear policy response: India would not approach UNSC and defend its territorial integrity; no interference from Pakistan would be tolerated; contingency plans would be prepared; and the nation would be kept abreast of all govt decisions.

h)   Indian forces had to capture the Haji Pir Pass and the Kishen Ganga bulge, the two supply routes for infiltration into the valley to thwart the attacks. This operation required crossing the Cease Fire Line. In another bold first for India, the forces were assured of the firm backing of PM and told govt would handle the consequences, records Srivastava.

i)     Through all of this, Shastri had ensured Indias able representation in the UNSC and convinced the big powers of Indias response as proportionate to Pakistani aggression, was briefed constantly by military commanders, consulted the opposition, and even organised regular press briefings to inform the people and instil confidence in the leadership.

j)     1965 clearly has lessons for conduct of government and diplomacy for the present day establishment. We both found a leader and lost a statesman, perhaps a little too soon.

5.

US moots Sri Lankan judicial mechanism with foreign judges (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Sri Lankas human rights issue

b)     UNHRC

c)     LTTE

d)     Eelam war

a)  A draft resolution, submitted by four countries (including the US and the UK) in the UNHRC has mooted the participation of Commonwealth and other foreign judges in a Sri Lankan judicial mechanism to probe allegations of war crimes and violations of international humanitarian law.

b)     According to draft, which has been hosted on the extranet of UNHRC, Sri Lanka has co-sponsored the resolution. The proposed mechanism includes the Special Counsels office.

c)     The text of an old draft had called upon the Sri Lankan government to involve international investigators, prosecutors and judges in Sri Lankas justice processes.

d)     Another significant feature of the resolution is that the reputation of those (including within the military) who conducted themselves in an appropriate manner with honour and professionalism would be safeguarded even as a credible accountability process will be in place for those most responsible for violations and abuses.

e)     The document also talks of the need for a process of accountability and reconciliation for violations and abuses committed by the LTTE.

6.

Making friends, influencing Nepal (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     Nepals new Constitution

b)     Constituent Assembly (CA)

c)    Nepali Congress (NC

d)     Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)

e)     Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-Maoist)

f)     Madhesi group

a)     On September 20, Nepal promulgated its new Constitution. However, instead of being an occasion for celebration in which all Nepali citizens could participate, there is a tinge of triumphalism on one side and, on the other, a growing agitation masking a sentiment of betrayal.

b)     More than one-tenth of the CA members boycotted the final proceedings. And, as often happens when Nepals domestic politics is polarised and descends into a slugfest, Indian policies have become a convenient punching bag and Nepali nationalism reduces to anti-Indianism.

c)    The current exercise kicked off in 2008 with the election of a CA with a two-year mandate to draft a new Constitution for a federal, democratic and republican Nepal. Even after the CA awarded itself four extensions, the task remained unfinished. The Supreme Court intervened to put an end to the repeated extensions in 2012 and, after a year, a new CA was elected in Nov 2013 for a four-year term though it gave itself a deadline of January 2015 to complete the Constitution which too was not observed.

d)     The tragic earthquake in April became a wake-up call for the political leadership and the govt, which had come in for all-round criticism for its inept crisis management. This galvanised the main political parties (NC, CPN (UML) and UCPN-Maoist) to push through a Constitution, by a two-thirds majority, if consensus was not possible. A 16-point agreement covering some of the major issues was announced in June.

e)     At this point, the big three parties had the benefit of having Bijay Gachedar (leader of a Madhesi-Tharu party) on board as a signatory. This agreement foresaw the creation of eight provinces, with boundaries to be determined by an expert committee within six months. However, it was shot down by a Supreme Court single-judge bench on the grounds that the CA was responsible for defining the federal structure and this could not be delegated.

f)    The big three then came out with a six-province proposal. Gachedar dissociated himself from it and as protests mounted, the three hurriedly made it a 7-province federal structure. Agitations turned increasingly violent in the Terai region.

g)     Though a small country, Nepal has more than a hundred ethnic groups. However, it has always been ruled by Bahun-Chettri (Brahmin-Kshatriya) hill elite which (together with other hill upper castes) accounts for less than 30 percent of the population. The leadership of the three major political parties, as well as that of smaller pro-monarchy groups, belongs to this group. On the other hand, the Janajatis (hill tribes), Tharus (plains tribes), Dalits and Madhesis have traditionally been the oppressed groups.

h)     Till 1950, a Madhesi needed a special permit to enter Kathmandu valley and citizenship was a major issue, which was finally addressed in the 1990s, with over 3 million citizenship certificates issued, though some concerns remained. These groups had periodically agitated for greater representation in power-sharing but always within the unitary framework of the monarchical system.

i)     When the decade-long Maoist insurgency ended in 2006, new demands grew for the abolition of monarchy and for a federal republic. NC and UML were always lukewarm to the idea and federalism banner was largely carried forward by the Maoists (Janjatis were part of their cadres) and Madhesis.

j)     When the Constitution-drafting exercise began in 2008, the CAs first decision was to abolish the 250-year-old monarchy while laying down principles for creating a democratic, secular, federal republic, often called a new Nepal. Over these years, Maoist and Madhesi forces have weakened. A section of the Maoist leadership was co-opted into the system and Prachanda is today rumoured to be a billionaire in dollar terms.

k)     While the Maoists had emerged as single-largest party in 2008 with 240 seats and the three Madhesi parties accounted for 84 seats, the outcome in 2013 elections turned out very differently. Maoists lost ground because of rumours of corruption, poor governance and factionalism; Madhesis because of ego clashes, caste differences among Brahmins, Thakurs, Yadavs and Kurmis, and political fracturing which weakened Madhes movement.

l)   Differences over delineation of the provinces were narrowed down to five districts on the India-Nepal border - Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari in the east and Kanchanpur and Kailali in west. Other contentious issues  related to the delineation of electoral constituencies; inclusion in state structures on basis of proportionality; and the two categories of citizenship, by descent and by naturalisation and the debarring of the latter from certain govt positions.

m)     Indian policy on this issue has been consistent. In Nov 2014, when PM Modi was in Kathmandu for the SAARC summit, it was clear that positions were hardening. PM Modi had said in a media interaction that outstanding differences should be resolved through dialogue and widespread consultation so that it could create the basis of a united, peaceful, stable and prosperous Nepal.

n)     Foreign Secretary Jaishankars visit to Kathmandu last week (after the CA had completed formal voting on the Constitution) was too late and could hardly have been expected to yield a favourable outcome. Instead, it has been a spur to Nepali nationalism which carries strains of anti-Indianism.

o)     However, any policy consistent and well-crafted, yields results only if implemented properly. The time to use Indian influence by working with our friends was during the first half of the year. What was needed was to sensitise the leaders of the big three parties to the risks of brinkmanship and get the agitating groups to unify so that a coherent stand could emerge.

7.

Obama, Xi reach pact on cyber spying (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     China – US relations

b)     Cyber spying

 

a)     US President Obama said he and Chinese President Xi reached a common understanding on addressing cyber spying issues and agreed that neither would conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property.

8.

Abandon n-weapons, end wars, says Pope (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     UNGA

b)     UNSC

c)     Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

d)     Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

a)     In his inaugural address at UNGA session to adopt the 2030 global development agenda, Pope Francis urged world leaders to abandon nuclear weapons and end wars. On Sept 25, 193 member countries of UNGA assembled to adopt the 2030 SDGs.

b)    Given the completion of 70 years of UN in current session and 15 years of implementing the MDGs, he said the juridical framework for peace and development was already in place, which had to be now implemented.

c)     Deriving from its 70 years of experience in global reform, he said the UN must address the need for greater equity with executive capabilities of the Security Council being employed to check financial agencies created to deal with the economic crisis.

9.

Obama and Putin to finally meet (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     US – Russia relations

b)     UNGA

c)     Ukraine issue

d)     Annexation of Crimea

a)     The meeting (to be held in New York, where both will be attending the annual session of the UN General Assembly) presents a challenge to Obama.

b)     Obama has not seen Putin in nearly a year, and the two have not had a formal sit-down meeting in more than two years, before Russia annexed Crimea and intervened in eastern Ukraine.     

10.

Chennai Declaration seeks official status for all languages (Page 13)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Schedule 8 of the Constitution

a)     The Union govts purported plan to resurrect Hindi in Tamil Nadu has its resonance in parts of eastern India. A summit held in Chennai earlier this week to mark the 50th anniversary of anti-Hindi agitation had participants from West Bengal and Odisha, among other States.

b)    The summit committee has published Chennai Declaration demanding recognition of all languages on Schedule 8 of the Constitution as official languages. While 22 languages are in the Schedule, Hindi and English are considered the official languages.

c)    Other demands are promote linguistic equality, coordinating movement to promote regional languages, includes immediate inclusion of all languages for which demands were made by various language communities, but are not accepted by the Union govt. The summit also sought an urgent support to the ethnic, indigenous and other languages with fewer numbers of speakers to save those from extinction and assimilation.

11.

Signals point to better economic activity (Pages 1 and 15)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     Indias economic growth

b)     GDP

c)     Inflation

d)     Deflation

e)     GST

a)     Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian said that the economy is sending mixed signals.

b)     He said the signals are pointing to an improvement in economic activity. But on the pace, we do get mixed signals. For example, indirect tax revenue numbers are doing very well, direct tax revenue numbers are not doing so well. Real credit growth numbers are actually doing better than people think.

c)     Stalled projects have also come down, but at the same time exports are in negative territory. Private investment is still challenged. So, the economy is still well below potential and thats the sense in which we can completely logically say that even though its recovering and full of potential, therefore it needs monetary policy support.

d)     Now, there is no accepted word for negative inflation and disinflation is too complicated a word. He said there are at least two manifestations of the deflation. One is agriculture. The second thing is that when nominal GDP starts decelerating as it has, it has implications for the fiscal as well. So, thats another manifestation of deflation.

e) He said tax issues have led to a lot of uncertainty. Addressing that will be a great start. GST is another very important reform, an area where all of us are disappointed it could not have been done faster.

12.

AP set to emerge as missile hub (Page 9)

a)     National

b)     S&T

a)     Defence Systems Integration Complex

b)     Akash Missile System

c)     Quick Response Surface-to-Air Missile (QR SAM)

d)     Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LR SAM)

e)     Medium Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MR SAM)

f)     Low Level Quick Reaction Missile System

g)     DRDO

 

a) Indias largest missile systems manufacturing and integration facility with an investment of Rs. 500 crore is being set up on a sprawling 900-acre site at Palasamudram, Gorantla in Anantapur district of A.P.

b)     Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar would lay the foundation-stone on Sept 30 for the facility - Defence Systems Integration Complex.

c)     It will cater to the needs of missile and weapon systems manufacturing/ integration for the ongoing and upcoming missile programmes.

d)    The supersonic, short range surface-to-air missile, Akash is being currently manufactured by BEL. It is lead integrator of Akash Missile System for IAF and supplies the radars, control centres, simulators, associated maintenance vehicles and integrated software.

e)     Various new missile programmes are proposed to be taken up by BEL in collaboration with DRDO and also as part of global tenders for QR SAM, LR SAM, MR SAM and Low Level Quick Reaction Missile System.

13.

Tidal waves likely to hit Kerala coast, says INCOIS (Page 8)

a)     National

b)     Geography

a)     Tidal waves

b)     Tidal flooding

c)     Perigean Spring Tide

d)     Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)

e)     Disaster Management Act

a)    According to the INCOIS (Hyderabad), tidal flooding is likely to occur from Sept 25 to 30, in connection with Perigean Spring Tide (also called Supermoon or King Tide) of Sept 28 when the moon is closest to earth during its orbit.

b)     The low lying areas along the Kerala coast (including southern Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram) are particularly vulnerable.

c)     Action would be initiated against such elements under Section 54 of the Disaster Management Act.

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