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Daily News Analysis 08-10-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

India to oppose uniform migration policy at BRICS meet in Sochi (Page 15)

a)     I.R

a)    India might be home to a considerable number of refugees, but it has decided not to be a signatory to a uniform migration policy that is coming up for discussion at the first BRICS Migration Conference in Sochi (Russia) on Oct 9.

2.

After PoK, India turns focus on Balochistan(Page 15)

a)     I.R

a)  After highlighting the alleged human rights violations in the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, India is preparing to take an aggressive position on Balochistan, in a marked departure from South Blocks Pakistan policy of the past.

3.

Getting down to business (Page 12)

a)     I.R

a)    German Chancellor Angela Merkels visit to India and her meetings with PMModi represented a much-neededdose of reality, for both India and Germany.

4.

Indian NGO criticises US climate action plans (Page 15)

a)     International

a)    In the run-up to the UN climate summit in Paris in December, Indian environmental NGO released a report which came down heavily on the US (the second largest emitter of CO2 globally) for not doing enough about climate change, while preaching to other countries (including India) to act.

5.

Nepal will look outside if crisis does not end (Page 15)

a)     International

a)     India sees no merit in Nepals complaints that it was being choked and deprived of essential supplies amid continuing trouble in the Himalayan state over its Constitution which is regarded as rigid.

6.

Myanmar can better India-China ties (Page 16)

a)     International

a)     Myanmarsopposition leader Aung San SuuKyisaid that Myanmar can help India and China overcome their problems and said better India-China relations are to the benefit of Myanmar as well.

7.

Nanning emerges as a pillar of the Maritime Silk Road (Page 16)

a)     International

a)After thorough deliberation, China has made Nanning one of the focal points of the proposed Maritime Silk Road, leveraging the southern citys natural connectivity linkages with Southeast Asia and growth hubs of Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macao.

8.

Aadhaar issue referred to Constitution Bench (Page 15)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)    The Supreme Court referred to a Constitution Bench the question whether a person can voluntarily shed his right to privacy by enrolling for Aadhaar to easily access government welfare services.

9.

These migrants need attention, too (Page 13)

a)     National

b)     Environment

a)    When species shift northward or higher, not all in an ecosystem may move, disrupting the interconnectedness that has evolved over decades.

10.

Chemistry Nobel for mapping how cells repair damaged DNA (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)    Tomas Lindahl, Paul L. Modrich and Aziz Sancar were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for having mapped and explained how the cell repairs its DNA and safeguards its genetic information.

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

India to oppose uniform migration policy at BRICS meet in Sochi (Page 15)

a)     I.R

a)     BRICS

b)     Refugee crisis

c)     Refugee Convention1951

d)     UNHCR

a)    India might be home to a considerable number of refugees, but it has decided not to be a signatory to a uniform migration policy that is coming up for discussion at the first BRICS Migration Conference in Sochi (Russia) on Oct 9.

b)     Official said that India will also push for a liberalised visa regime for skilled workers among BRICS nations to promote business and economic interests.

c)     According to a UN report, Globally, one in 122 humans is now either a refugee, internally displaced, or seeking asylum.

d)     According to UN refugee agency (UNHCR), the migration crisis in 2015 reached an alarming level as wars, conflict and persecution forced more people than at any other time since records began, to flee their homes and seek refuge and safety elsewhere.

e)     Though India offers asylum to a large number of refugees, it is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention.

2.

After PoK, India turns focus on Balochistan(Page 15)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Pakistan relations

b)     Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK)

c)     Balochistan

d)     Balochistan Liberation Organisation (BLO)

 

a)  After highlighting the alleged human rights violations in the PoK, India is preparing to take an aggressive position on Balochistan, in a marked departure from South Blocks Pakistan policy of the past.

b)     The new Indian position over Balochistan became public when BLO representative BalaachPardili addressed a gathering in New Delhi on Oct 4, reading out a statement from BLOs exiled leader NawabzadaHyrbyairMarri.

c)     BLO (which is in favour of freedom of Balochistan from Pakistan) has confirmed about the presence of its political representative in Delhi. Pardili(who originally hails from Afghanistan) has been living in Delhi since 2009 and was recently contacted by NawabzadaMarri to represent him at public meetings.

d)     While the dynamics of the new policy have not been fleshed out, officials confirmed that both PoK and Balochistan will be used more and more when India faces allegations from Pakistan over J&K. This is an evolving policy.

e)     Balochistan is divided among 3 countries, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. But the atrocities are taking place inside Pakistan which has conducted five military operations against the Baloch people. Pakistan also encourages the Taliban to torture the Baloch inside Afghanistan.

3.

Getting down to business (Page 12)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Germany relations

b)     Economic ties

c)     Ease-of-doing-business

d)     UN Framework Convention on Climate Change  (UNFCCC)

a)   German Chancellor Merkels visit to India and her meetings with PMModi represented a much-neededdose of reality, for both India and Germany. The fact that Merkel came to India despite a brewing refugee crisis back home that kept both her Economy Minister and Defence Minister back in Berlin, shows the importance that she accords to relationship.

b)     Modi(during his third meeting with Merkel in six months) demonstrated that he sees Germany as an important partner in trade, a provider of technology and means to clean energy, and as a partner on UN stage. However, their meetings in Delhi and Bengaluru wereshorn of the kind of pomp, splendour, and joint photo-ops that were the hallmarks of other bilaterals.

c)     As a result, Merkel spoke candidly of the problems that German businesses have faced in operating in India, and hoped that the new agreement for a special fast-track mechanism would help them secure licences and clearances expeditiously.

d)     Modi listed 11 initiatives taken in order to achieve the immediate priorities of improving Indias ease-of-doing-business ranking, make a push to take manufacturing to 25 percent of GDP in order to increase jobs, and for investment.

e)     Even the German announcements of  €1 billion towards solar energy and a like sum for clean energy constitute a fraction of Indias requirements, given the  decision to increase renewable energy capacity four-fold to 175 GW, for which India has told the UNFCCC  it needs $2.5 trillion by 2030.

f)   The realism was particularly welcome when it came to the Joint Declaration on Intent on education: both reversed earlier positions on language studies, to ensure that modern Indian languages would be available to German students while Indian students would continue to be able to opt for German, without giving up Sanskrit.

g)     It is to be hoped that the template of the visit is an indicator of future: of a govt transitioning from the euphoria and excitement of its bilateral forays in its first year, getting down to brass tacks in the second.

4.

Indian NGO criticises US climate action plans (Page 15)

a)     International

a)     Paris Climate summit 2015

b)     Climate change

c)     Carbon emissions

d)     Carbon budget

e)     Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)

f)     UNFCCC

g)     Centre for Science and Environment (CSE)

a)    In the run-up to the UN climate summit in Paris in Dec, Indian environmental NGO(CSE)released a report which came down heavily on US (the second largest emitter of CO2 globally) for not doing enough about climate change, while preaching to other countries (including India) to act.

b)     In its report, the CSE concluded that with 5 percent of the global population, the US would disproportionately eat into 17.25 percent of the global carbon budget till 2030, and nothing would be left for other countries after that.

c)     Drawing attention to the deep inequalities playing out in the climate change negotiation arena globally, CSE Director told that US is eating into the carbon budget space of other developing and less developed countries, which need it badly for their economic growth.

d)     The report found that US emissions saw a downward spiral only during the recession in 2007-08. In its INDCs submitted to the UNFCCC in March this year, the country committed to cutting its CO2 emission levels by 26 to 28 percent by 2030. However, in comparison to the INDCs of other developed countries like the EU-28, which agreed to cut emissions by 40 percent, this is meagre.

5.

Nepal will look outside if crisis does not end (Page 15)

a)     International

a)     Nepals new Constitution

a)     India sees no merit in Nepals complaints that it was being choked and deprived of essential supplies amid continuing trouble in the Himalayan state over its Constitution which is regarded as rigid.

b)     Nepals Ambassador Deep Kumar Upadhyay again spoke of an Indian blockade of his country, which he claimed, was being denied of essential supplies such as petroleum products by India, a charge dismissed by New Delhi.

c)     India maintains that the concerns of Indian-origin Madhesi population about the new Nepal Constitution were legitimate and needed to be addressed now.

d)     India is in consultations with other countries and groupings like the EU over the crisis in the Himalayan nation.

6.

Myanmar can better India-China ties (Page 16)

a)     International

a)     Myanmars internal issues

b)     National League for Democracy (NLD)

c)     Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN)

a)     Myanmarsopposition leader Aung San SuuKyisaid that Myanmar can help India and China overcome their problems and said better India-China relations are to the benefit of Myanmar as well.

b)     Speaking for the first time about Indian operations on NSCN camps along the India-Myanmar border in June, she said it was important to have transparency when it comes to hot pursuit missions. The lack of transparency erodes the very foundations of friendship.

7.

Nanning emerges as a pillar of the Maritime Silk Road (Page 16)

a)     International

a)     Maritime Silk Road(MSR) project

b)     Nanning

c)     Pearl River

d)     Xijiang River

e)     South China Sea

a)   After thorough deliberation, China has made Nanning one of the focal points of the proposed Maritime Silk Road, leveraging the southern citys natural connectivity linkages with Southeast Asia and growth hubs of Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macao.

b)     The waterways of Xijiang River that flows through the city lead to the Pearl River and the South China Sea.

c)   In view of the vast potential of the greater Pearl River Delta region, Chinese authorities are developing the Pearl River-Xijiang River Economic Belt. When fully developed, the waterways would strongly reinforce Nannings state-of-the-art rail and road connectivity to the coast.

d)     The Guangxi province (of which Nanning is the capital) is also the gateway to a large landlocked space. Three deep water ports that face the Beibu Gulf of the South China Sea (Qinzhou, Fangchenggang and Beihai) at a distance ranging from104 to 204 km can be accessed from Nanning.

8.

Aadhaar issue referred to Constitution Bench (Page 15)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Aadhaar

b)     Public Distribution System (PDS)

c)     Right to privacy

a)     The Supreme Court referred to a Constitution Bench the question whether a person can voluntarily shed his right to privacy by enrolling for Aadhaar to easily access government welfare services.

b)    However, a three-judge Bench did not modify its Aug 11 order restricting the use of Aadhaar cards to only PDS and LPG connections. Instead, it left the order open for the Constitution Bench to consider and take a call.

c)    The government claimed that a poor starving man would have no second thoughts about shedding his privacy rights to enrol for Aadhaar.

9.

These migrants need attention, too (Page 13)

a)     National

b)     Environment

a)     Climate change

b)     Global warming

c)     Paris climate summit 2015

a)    According to the author, our fish are moving north.Until about the mid-1980s, important fish species such as mackerel and oil sardines used to be present no further north than the Malabar upwelling zone off the Kerala coast.

b)     According to the Kerala State Action Plan on Climate Change,(because of global warming)sea surface temperatures along Indias west coast rose by 0.6 degrees Celsius over 1967-2007. Consequently, these fish species began to find the ocean waters further north also rather salubrious.

c)     In the last thirty years, the northern boundary of their range (the geographical area over which any given species is to be found)has extended a staggering 650 kms. Having moved beyond Karnataka and Maharashtra, they can now be found in waters off Gujarat. Off Indias eastern coast too, the mackerels range has shifted north, from the Andhra coast earlier to waters off parts of West Bengal presently.

d)     This shift in the range of species is also taking place in Indias rivers. Along the Ganga, four species of warm water fish can now be found swimming further north (up to Haridwar), as the average minimum temperatures of river waters in this stretch had warmed by 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2009 over the 1970-1986 average.

e)     Shifts or extensions in species range because of global warming are occurring with innumerable species in every region, terrain and ecosystem in India. Rising temperatures are the most obvious cause, but changing rainfall patterns is also a factor. And in some cases, a species itself may not need to move but is forced to shift because its food/prey may have. This phenomenon is not unique to India.

f)     In fact, as the Indian Himalayas have warmed by 1.5 degrees Celsius on average in the past few decades, a number of species now find lower altitudes too warm for comfort. The case of Himachali apples (which no longer thrive in the lower Kullu Valley) is the most well-known, but scarcely the only one. The treeline in Uttarakhand has itself moved higher by over a thousand feet since the 1970s. In the eastern Himalayas, innumerable species have all had to shift higher.

g)     Species in India also suffer other effects of global warming: heat stress, ocean acidification, greater pest attacks, and droughts. But no phenomenon captures the chaos it is causing in the natural world more than the changing timing of annual lifecycle events (or phenology) of plants and animals. Changes studied elsewhere include the timing of first flowering, bud emergence, birds nesting, the timings of frogs breeding, etc.

h)     Shifts in range or in the timing of lifecycle events are climate change adaptations by species. But it would be optimistic to assume they can all cope. When timings change in plants, it creates problems for other species dependent on them for food. When species shift (northward or higher), not all species in an ecosystem may move and the interconnectedness that has evolved over decades gets disrupted.

i)     A number of studies in India have voiced concern about extinctions here too in the not too distant future affecting endemic species and alpine plants at the top of mountain ecosystems, forest species of pine and sal in central India, the Nilgiritahr in montane forests down South among others.

j)   The crisis of global warming is rendered qualitatively different and gains even greater urgency if one considers its impacts on other species. With so much havoc already occurring across ecosystems at current levels (0.9 degrees Celsius) of average warming, one shudders to think what further warming might imply for an untold number of species in India.

k)   As the world heads towards the crucial COP21 negotiations in Paris in December, one can only hope that political elites are keeping an ear out for what other species are trying to tell us about global warming as they struggle to cope.

10.

Chemistry Nobel for mapping how cells repair damaged DNA (Page 16)

a)     S&T

a)     DNA mapping

 

a)    Tomas Lindahl, Paul L. Modrich and Aziz Sancar were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for having mapped and explained how the cell repairs its DNA and safeguards its genetic information.

b)     Lindahl was honoured for his discoveries on base excision repair - the cellular mechanism that repairs damaged DNA during the cell cycle. Modrich was recognised for showing how cells correct errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. Sancar was cited for mapping the mechanism cells use to repair ultraviolet damage to DNA.

c)     Their systematic work has made a decisive contribution to the understanding of how the living cell functions, as well as providing knowledge about the molecular causes of several hereditary diseases and about mechanisms behind both cancer development and aging.

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