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My notes 27-10-2015
  • British historians like James Mill have mono causally built the Indian history on the basis of religion and divided it in to the phases of ancient, medieval and modern. Western conception of Indian history even by Marxist historians was challenged. British historians tried to glorify the colonial rule as a phase of modernisation in India.
  • It was dismissed scientifically by Indian historians such as Romila Thapar.  India has a great historic tradition from very beginning. In ancient India, they are in the form of inscriptions, stories, literature etc. In medieval India, they started documenting the history on time line. At the same point of time, Europe was building the grand theory of generalizations surrounding the god. Contrary to this in India, History was perceived as specific to the diversity of human nature. Historical events are treated as independent and not part of a grand pattern.
  • Today History is not considered as mono causal but multifaceted to include social and economic structures. Sangh Parivars attempts to revive British understanding of Indian history surrounding religion is retrogressive.

 

Collegium need to Improve

  1. The collegium system of Judicial appointments are criticized for lack of transparency, respect for merit, and clear criteria for selection of Judges.
  2. In this context, following measures can be adopted for improving the system
  3. Declaration of clear criteria for selection of judges. Announcement of yearly cycle of vacancies and recruitment schedules with a proper secretarial support for collegium.
  4. Merit need to be encouraged. In this context, an unwritten rule of minimum age has entered in to higher judicial appointments. It is based on the premise age and maturity will go together. But, in USA Young judges brought depth and new thinking in to the judgements. Law commisison of India also recommended young judges in to the constitutional courts. In this context, collegium could fix a zone of consideration.
  5. Judicial appointments shall also take diversity of the nation in to consideration. Women, minorities, Dalits representation shall increase.
  6. Cooling off period - post retirement postings shall not become an attraction for sitting judge. 2-3 years cooling off period helps in maintaining judicial independence.
  7. Different retirement ages for judges of Supreme Court and High court shall be done away with. I t is unnecessarily raising a sycophancy and unhealthy competition among the judges of high court.

 

 

Barbaric indeed -

Context - on barbaric Punishments suggested by Madras high court to rapists

  • Indian criminal justice system is based on the principle of proportionality of punishment.
  • Civilised systems have moved away from the systems of retributive justice. Such barbaric punishments can make many countries not to sign extradition treaties with India.
  • Chemical castration suggested for rapists has its limitations and is mostly used for medical treatments rather than punishments.
  • In this context, considering the rape as a manifestation of hyper sexuality is a very narrow understanding. It misses important social dimension of gender relations in India.

 

Crises in Maldives

  • Context - President Abdulla Yameen ordered for the arrest of vice president ahmed Adheeb on charges of high treason.
  •  
  • The election of president Yameen in unexceptional circumstances has tested the nascent democracy of Maldives. Once in to power, former president Mohd Nasheed was arrested on charges of terrorism. High handedness, authoritarian tendencies are visible in the suppression of opposition. In this context, to what extent, fairness in justice delivery exists in the present case is doubtful.
  •  
  • So, president yameen shall create proper space for dissent, protests and respect for democratic rights of the people.

 

  • Atal Innovation mission
  • NITI aayog panel on Innovation recommendations to build start up ecosystem
  1. One percent of corporate profit can be directed towards research labs in universities or university industry collaboration,
  2. A percentage of corporate profit could be directed towards venture capital funds for the purpose of investments.
  3. All contracts with foreign defence companies above $5bn should include a clause for 5% of contract value to be directed to the establishment of research centric universities
  4. Make in universities program with state of the art laboratories need to be initiated. Panel suggested for utilisation of half of the funds set aside for SETU - self-employed and talent utilisation scheme.
  5. Grand prizes for ultra low cost solutions for India specific problems. Ex - XPRIZE in USA
  6. Increase in investment for business incubator centers with up to 200 crores.

 

It need to be remembered that Google grew from research projects funded by National science foundation and apple from US government’s small business administration program.

 

Atal Innovation mission

  • It is announced in the budget 20150-16 with an allocation of rs 150 crore.
  • It seeks to connect innovators from the universities, consultants, private enterprise along with Government.
  • AIM would have four working groups 1) idea and networks 2) angel funds 3) governance Innovation 4) Missions group

 

 

 

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