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Daily News Analysis 28-10-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

Nuclear pact with India to be ready soon, says Australia (Page 13)

a)     I.R

a)     Australia said that the civil nuclear agreement allowing it to supply uranium to India and the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement would be in place by the target deadline of December.

2.

Salesmanship as statesmanship (Page 10)

a)     I.R

a)    From non-alignment (under which India acted without any specific agenda for itself), we have reached a stage of pragmatic alignment, where we view relationships through the prism of profits. Can a foreign policy solely based on perceived returns (without a global vision) be beneficial in the long run?

3.

China furious over US warship patrol (Page 14)

a)     International

a)    Tensions between China and the US have spiralled after Beijing expressed its strong discontent and resolute opposition following a patrol by a US warship near two artificial islands in the South China Sea.

4.

TULF to float a new coalition (Page 14)

a)     International

a)    According to V. Anandasangaree(general secretary of the party),the Tamil United Liberation Front in Sri Lanka plans to form a broad-based coalition of parties and forces opposed to the Tamil National Alliance.

5.

Taliban rift could help Islamic State (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     An emerging power struggle within the Afghan Taliban leadership could drive disgruntled fighters to join the so-called Islamic State group, which is already believed to have established a foothold in Afghanistan.

6.

Info panel turning down more RTI requests now (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)    Data show that the Central Information Commission has admitted fewer and fewer cases every month this year under the Right to Information Act and RTI activists have asked for greater transparency in the process of turning down requests.

7.

India moves up in ease of doing business ranking (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     Economy

a)     India improved its position from last years 134 to 130 in the World Bank Doing Business 2016 ranking, which was released on Oct 27.

 

 

 

 

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

Nuclear pact with India to be ready soon, says Australia (Page 13)

a)     I.R

a)     India – Australia relations

b)     India-Australia Civil nuclear agreement

c)     Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)

d)     G20 Summit

a)     Australia said that the civil nuclear agreement allowing it to supply uranium to India and the CECA would be in place by target deadline of December.

b)     Visiting Trade and Investment Minister said the Australian Parliament was expected to ratify the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement that the two countries had signed in Sept 2014. Australia has about a third of worlds recoverable uranium resources and exports nearly 7000 tonnes of it a year.

c)     He said the CECA will principally focus on services and investments and will also have a respectable goods package and it will(as any such deal must) respect the fact that still 600 million Indians live on less than $2 a day. Those sensitivities will be in it.

d)     Officials said meetings between PMModi and his Australian counterpart Malcolm Turnbull were expected on the sidelines of the upcoming G20 Summit next month in Turkey and that they might make an announcement there.

2.

Salesmanship as statesmanship (Page 10)

a)     I.R

a)     Indias foreign policy

b)     UNSC

c)     G-4

d)     G-20

e)     G-77

f)     SAARC

g)     Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

h)     Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

i)     Kyoto Protocol

 

 

a)    According to the author, to characterise the foreign policy of the most peripatetic Indian PM as nationalist may appear contradictory. The popular demand today is that he should be in India more often, to deal with the crying needs of the country. The core of his agenda is domestic, not international. His arena is international, but his concerns are domestic.

b)     The transformation of Indias foreign policy from an internationalist one to a nationalist one may well have begun after Jawaharlal Nehru and V.K. Krishna Menon. Domestic preoccupations were brought to centre stage, though the old tradition of engagement in world affairs remained alive.

c)     The torrent of international issues (such as the conflicts in Indo-China and Korea, the Suez Canal crisis and even the conflict in Austria) in all of which India played a role without any specific agenda for itself, became a trickle. 

d)     Perhaps our early day interventions happened because of the activism of the NAM, which pronounced itself on every major international issue in its declarations. By shaping those pronouncements, mainly by balancing and moderating them, India found fulfilment in playing its international role. It did not find it necessary to take initiatives to resolve disputes or avert conflicts, except in its ownneighbourhood. Our insistence on bilateralism in resolving issues may also have been an inhibiting factor.

e)     In the post-Cold War era, Indias internationalism began to be confined to regional and other groupings, most of them economic. Concerns about the protection of global commons, such as the environment, assumed importance. We began looking at protecting our own interests, taking positions like no mandatory reduction of green house gases for the developing countries.

f)     Copenhagen was a real turning point in our environment policy when we virtually disowned the Kyoto Protocol except in name. Our nuclear tests in 1998 and the subsequent nuclear deal with the United States left India with no like-minded countries in disarmament. It was the arm-twisting by US that made the NSG provide us an exemption.

g)     We had earlier used the non-aligned position that only non-permanent membership should be increased until comprehensive reform is accomplished, just to thwart the US sponsored quick fix solution of Germany and Japan being made Permanent Members. 

h)     However, we then moved on to the G-4 initiative (under which India, Brazil, Japan and Germany would seek permanent membership) which has very few takers among the small developing countries. The G-77 virtually disappeared from many forums because Indias leadership in it withered away.

i)     India continued to take a global view in G-20 and the WTO, primarily because of the reputation of Manmohan Singh as an economic guru, even for Obama. ManmohanSinghs withdrawal from international arena and his close relationship with the US in Indias interests changed the Nehruvian view that Indias dreams coincided with the worlds dreams.

j)     During our last term at the UNSC, India seemed to be in a dilemma as to whether we should work with the nonaligned caucus or plough a lonely furrow; we ended up in flip-flops. Both the Permanent Members and the nonaligned caucus found our term a mixed blessing.

k)     Modis surprise initiatives in foreign policy from day one seemed to project him as an internationalist. As Raja Mohan summarised in his book Modis World, he warmed up to America, recast the approach to China and Pakistan, sustained the old friendship with Russia, deepened the strategic partnership with Japan and Australia, boosted Indiasneighbourhood policy, wooed international business leaders and reconnected with the Indian diaspora.

l)     We could add to this his championship of the reform of the Security Council; his stress on the environment; and him taking initiatives on getting closer to France, Germany, Canada, the island states and now Africa. But the change is not only in style and eloquence, but in turning Indian foreign policy inward.

m)     Focusing on national interests in formulating foreign policy is fundamental for all countries. But turning statesmanship to salesmanship is a new phenomenon in Indian foreign policy. Our tradition has been to provide leadership to the world, not to demand it as our right, as Modi did in the case of permanent membership of the Security Council.

n)     Speaking of our eminent qualifications is one thing, but claiming it as a right may drive our supporters away. Our case was that we were willing to serve on the Council to restore the balance there and to make it more relevant, not to claim membership as a right to protect our interests. Even Permanent Members never claim that they have a right to be there.

o)  Modistarted neighbourhood policy with the ambition to remove poverty in South Asia through a renewed SAARC, but soon discovered the perfidy of Pakistan. He persisted for a while as India had much to gain from a transformation in India-Pak relations. However, SAARC is no longer a priority in his development agenda. Nepal is another case where his hopes were belied.

p)     Remember the cordiality and the oneness he projected with Nepal in the name of the eternal values the two countries shared? However, today, he has virtually imposed an embargo on Nepal for not listening to our advice. Indira Gandhi did same once, but she had explained repeatedly to the international community the rationale for her actions and had restored normalcy after a while. The world will watch our policies and make conclusions on our reliability and statesmanship.

q)     The common elements inModis speeches abroad can be clearly identified. First and foremost, it is the grandeur of India and his own role as its man of destiny. Second, he claims that things have changed dramatically since he took over and that India is now ready to receive investments and recognition as a global player. He feels the world has a stake in Indias development and security and that it is imperative for other countries to work with India.

r)     Statesmanship demands every national leader to have a global vision - he should place his country in the larger context of well-being of the mankind. In Modis case, India is at the centre of the world. In his speeches at UN, he claims that what the UN does today was anticipated by India long ago. If India considers the Earth as the mother and calls the whole world a family, it has nothing to learn from sustainable goals, so meticulously put together by other nations.

s)     Whether or not a foreign policy which is premised on seeking advantages for India (without projecting a grand vision for the world) will benefit India, only time will tell. However, for an India that had once taken greater pride in giving to the world than taking from it, Modis foreign policy is strikingly new.

3.

China furious over US warship patrol (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     China – US relations

b)     South China Sea

c)     Spratly islands (Nansha islands)

d)     Zhubi Reef

 

a)    Tensions between China and the US have spiralled after Beijing expressed its strong discontent and resolute opposition following a patrol by a US warship near two artificial islands in the South China Sea.

b)     Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Lu Kang warned that the action taken by US of patrolling an area near Zhubi Reef threatened Chinas sovereignty and security interests, endangered the safety of personnel and facilities in the reef, and harmed regional peace and stability.

c)    Zhubi reef is part of Spratly islands, which the Chinese call Nansha islands. China claims full sovereignty over the islands and its adjacent waters.

d)    He asserted the US warship had entered waters near Zhubi Reef without the permission of the Chinese govt. However, US said it doesnot have to consult with any nation when we are exercising the right of freedom of navigation in international waters.

e)     He said the construction activities undertaken by China on its territory was an internal affair and does not block the legal freedom of other countries. China respects other countries freedom of navigation in accordance with international law.

4.

TULF to float a new coalition(Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Sri Lankas internal issues

b)     Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF)

c)     Tamil National Alliance (TNA)

d)     Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP)

e)     Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

f)     Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

a)    According to V. Anandasangaree(general secretary of the party),the Tamil United Liberation Front in Sri Lanka plans to form a broad-based coalition of parties and forces opposed to the TNA.

b)VinayagamoorthiMuralidaran has decided to quit the SLFP and join the proposed front.Muralidaran(who was the commander of the LTTE in the eastern region covering Batticaloa, Amparai and Trincomalee till his defection in April 2004) is now vice-president of the SLFP.

c)     In its Sept 2015 report on allegations of human rights violations and war crimes during a seven-year period (2002-09) of the Eelam War, the OHCHR blamed a paramilitary group belonging to him for widespread abduction and forced recruitment after the split with the LTTE.

5.

Taliban rift could help Islamic State (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Taliban

b)     Taliban-Afghan government peace talks

c)     Islamic State (IS)

a)     An emerging power struggle within the Afghan Taliban leadership could drive disgruntled fighters to join the so-called Islamic State group, which is already believed to have established a foothold in Afghanistan.

b)     Mullah AkhtarMansoor was named leader in July after the death of founder Mullah Omar. Mansoor is seen as a moderate who favours peace talks with govt. His reputation got a boost after his fighters briefly occupied the northern city of Kunduz in September.

c)     Anti-Mansoor faction: Many Taliban commanders (including prominent dissident Mullah Abdul QayyumZakir) oppose peace process and are meeting to choose a leader to rival Mansoor. The group is backed by Tayyab Agha, ex-head of Taliban political office in Qatar.

d)     President Ashraf Ghani is pushing for a negotiated settlement to the 14-year insurgency. Taliban rift could discourage Mansoor from continuing with the Pakistan-based talks.

6.

Info panel turning down more RTI requests now (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)    Right to Information(RTI) Act

b)    Central Information Commission (CIC)

a)    Data show that the Central Information Commission has admitted fewer and fewer cases every month this year under the RTI and RTI activists have asked for greater transparency in the process of turning down requests.

b)    Cases come before the CIC in two ways: if an applicant is not satisfied with the response to his or her request for information from a Central govt authority, and with the verdict of the first appeal made to the authority concerned, he or she can approach the CIC for the second appeal.

c)     Additionally, if a citizen has a complaint (his or her request was not taken or wrong information was given or he or she has faced threats) he or she can come directly before the CIC.

d)     RTI activists who met CIC asked for a searchable database of all requests for information, along with reasons for rejection or return.

7.

India moves up in ease of doing business ranking (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     Economy

a)     World Bank Doing Business 2016

b)     Ease of doing business

 

a)     India improved its position from last years 134 to 130 in the World Bank Doing Business 2016 ranking, which was released on Oct 27.

b)     Last years report ranked India at 140, but this years report features the recalculated 2015 rankings (in which India comes at 134) computed according to a new methodology.

c)     The WB Doing Business reports (started in 2002) review business regulations and their enforcement across 189 countries.

d)     India also improved its distance to the frontier, a measure of a countrys absolute performance.

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