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Daily News Analysis 07-11-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

Countries met only half of emissions target: UN report (Page 13)

a)     International

a)     Only a dynamic Paris climate agreement in December can help keep global warming under the 2 Degree Celsius threshold, as the current levels of greenhouse gas emissions to be cut by 2030 (11 gigatonnes) is only about half of the total required.

2.

Trans Pacific trade pact text triggers fresh debate in US (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     The release of the bulky text of the 12-nation Trans Pacific Partnership trade agreement (it has 30 chapters and numerous annexure and related instruments) has caused a fresh round of domestic debate in the US on how it would impact the country.

3.

Obama rejects Keystone pipeline project (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     US President Obama announced that he had rejected the request from a Canadian company to build Keystone XL oil pipeline, ending a 7-year review that had become a flash point in the debate over his climate policies.

4.

Putin halts Russian flights to Egypt (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     An analysis of black boxes from the Russian plane that went down in Egypts Sinai Peninsula last week point to a bomb attack, even as Russian President Putin agreed to suspend all Russian flights to Egypt after a recommendation by his chief of intelligence.

5.

Inclusive reforms will make life better, says PM (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

a)     PM Modi said that Indias performance on all economic parameters (including inflation and foreign investments) was now better than when his government assumed office 17 months ago.

6.

In India, unemployment rate still high (Page 12)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Ten million Indians with graduate, post-graduate and technical degrees were looking for work, meaning that 15 percent of all Indians with the highest levels of education were seeking job as of 2011.

7.

Guarantee the funds (Page 10)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     For a scheme meant to be used by the poorest of the poor in their leanest times, it is unconscionable that the govt owes Rs.3200 crore to beneficiaries of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

8.

Barefoot College takes big strides to Paris (Page 13)

a)     National

a)     Anticipating the high-visibility global diplomacy during Paris climate talks, India has decided to project Barefoot women solar engineers (an initiative of Sanjit Bunker Roy) as a global success story crafted in India.

9.

Finance Minister and RBI Governor pat for Aadhaar (Page 16)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley spoke out against the fact that the Supreme Court is deliberating on the issue of Aadhaar being universally implemented saying that it is up to the government to decide the methodology of governance, not the courts.

10.

China stalling Indias exports, says Commerce Minister (Page16)

a)     Economy

a)     Commerce Minister Nirmala Sitharaman expressed concern over China continuing to make efforts to stall Indias exports to that country.

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

Countries met only half of emissions target: UN report (Page 13)

a)     International

a)     Paris Climate summit 2015

b)     Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

c)     Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)

d)     Global warming

e)     United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

f)     Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC)

g)     Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+)

a)     The message from the UNEP Emissions Gap report launched in Geneva is clear. Only a dynamic Paris climate agreement in Dec can help keep global warming under the 2 Degree Celsius threshold, as the current levels of greenhouse gas emissions to be cut by 2030 (11 gigatonnes) is only about half of the total required.

b) This is even if all conditional and unconditional INDCs of countries submitted by Oct1 are fully implemented, as emissions will still be 12 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e) beyond the level that gives a likely chance of limiting global temperature rise to 2 Degree Celsius this century.

c)     The UNEP report provides a sense of the scale of the task lying ahead of countries to curb global warming. It shows that the 119 INDCs submitted so far represent GHG emission reductions in 2030 of 4 to 6 GtCO2e compared to what the emissions would be under the current policy trajectory.

d)     The report notes that 2030 projections based on current policies are themselves 5 GtCO2e lower than the estimate of 65 GtCO2e by the IPCC fifth assessment report, which assumed no additional climate policies, put in place after 2010.

e)     The report has a special chapter on REDD+, a UN programme focussing on opportunity for climate change mitigation through forest-related actions in developing countries, and finds the theoretical potential of reducing forest loss and restoring forests could be as high as 9 GtCO2e/yr in Africa, Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean combined.

f)     However, the report notes that economic and land-use factors may constrain the achievable benefits to around 3 GtCO2e/yr. This reflects the fact that forest loss, which reached 7.6 million hectares per year between 2010-2015, accounts for the largest portion of emissions from land use.

2.

Trans Pacific trade pact text triggers fresh debate in US (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Trans Pacific Trade (TPP) agreement

 

a)     The release of the bulky text of the 12-nation TPP trade agreement (it has 30 chapters and numerous annexure and related instruments) has caused a fresh round of domestic debate in the US on how it would impact the country.

b)     The TPP has implications for India, too, as experts have predicted the possibility of the proposed pact leading to trade diversions from India.

c)     TPP will cover 40 percent of the global commerce, and will ease trade among the participant countries - Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US and Vietnam.

d)    President Obama said in an email that the TPP is highest standard trade agreement in history. It eliminates 18,000 taxes that various countries put on American goods. That will boost Made-in-America exports abroad while supporting higher-paying jobs right here at home.

3.

Obama rejects Keystone pipeline project (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Paris Climate summit 2015

b)     Carbon emissions

c)     Global warming

d)     Keystone XL oil pipeline

a)     US President Obama announced that he had rejected the request from a Canadian company to build Keystone XL oil pipeline, ending a seven-year review that had become a flash point in the debate over his climate policies.

b)     Obamas denial of the proposed 1179-mile pipeline (which would have carried 8,00,000 barrels a day of carbon-heavy petroleum from the Canadian oil sands to the Gulf Coast) comes as he is seeking to build an ambitious legacy on climate change.

c)     The move was made ahead of a major UN summit meeting on climate change to be held in Paris in December, when the US President hopes to help broker a historic agreement committing the worlds nations to enacting new policies to counter global warming.

4.

Putin halts Russian flights to Egypt (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Russian plane crash

b)     Islamic State (IS)

a)     An analysis of black boxes from the Russian plane that went down in Egypts Sinai Peninsula last week point to a bomb attack, even as Russian President Putin agreed to suspend all Russian flights to Egypt after a recommendation by his chief of intelligence.

b)   US and British leaders have stopped short of a categorical assignment of blame in the crash, but PM David Cameron said it was more likely than not that the cause was a bomb. US President Obama also raised the possibility that a bomb brought down the Russian plane.

5.

Inclusive reforms will make life better, says PM (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

a)     Financial inclusion

b)     Jan Dhan Yojana.

c)     Aadhaar

d)     Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana

 

a) Speaking at Delhi Economics Conclave 2015, PM Modi said that Indias performance on all economic parameters (including inflation and foreign investments) was now better than when his government assumed office 17 months ago.

b)     He also said the govt had brought back as much as Rs. 10,500 crore of black money stashed away abroad and that the JAM (Jandhan, Aadhar and Mudra) initiatives were all about achieving maximum values for every rupee spent, maximum empowerment and maximum technology penetration among the masses.

c)     He said almost Rs. 26,000 crore or nearly four billion dollars was currently held in the accounts opened under the Jan Dhan Yojana.

d)     Under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, he said, banks provided more than six million loans to small businesses for a total value of nearly Rs. 38,000 crore or 6 billion dollars. If one conservatively estimated that each loan created two jobs, govt had already laid the foundation for 12 million new jobs.

6.

In India, unemployment rate still high (Page 12)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Unemployment in India

b)     Census 2011

a)     According to the data emerges from new Census 2011 numbers, of the 116 million Indians who were either seeking or available for work, 32 million were illiterate and 84 literate. Among literates, unemployment rates were higher among the better qualified, highest of all among the 7.2 million people with a technical diploma or certificate other than a degree.

b)     At all levels of education, unemployment rates were higher in rural than in urban areas. At every level of education (especially at higher levels), female unemployment exceeded male unemployment.

c)     Overall, Indias unemployment rate grew from 6.8 p.c. in 2001 to 9.6 p.c. in 2011, based on official Census data. Unemployment grew faster for illiterates than for literates.

d)      In all, India had just 56 million graduates and post-graduates in 2011 and 12 million with a technical certificate or diploma equivalent to a graduate or post-graduate degree.

e)     Kerala had Indias highest graduate unemployment rate at over 30 percent.

7.

Guarantee the funds (Page 10)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

b)     Poverty

 

a)     For a scheme meant to be used by the poorest of the poor in their leanest times, it is unconscionable that the govt owes Rs.3200 crore to beneficiaries of MGNREGS. Yet that is exactly where matters have reached with the ten-year-old scheme, a fact the Supreme Court took notice of earlier this week.

b)     The scheme was launched by the UPA govt in its first term and delays in wage payments preceded the change in govt, but matters have come to a head over the last year, resulting in a decline in the number of people participating.

c)     The number of households that got the legally guaranteed 100 days of work fell from 51.73 lakh in 2012-13 to 46.73 lakh in 2013-14 (under the UPA), and then dipped sharply to 23.24 lakh in 2014-15 (under the NDA).

d)     Research and news reports suggest that delays in wage payments are turning workers away from the scheme and towards more exploitative forms of work that might require them to leave their States, but where payment is guaranteed each week. Institutional mechanisms written into scheme (including a social audit system) have been neglected, and wages have not kept pace with inflation.

e)     There is now a wealth of evidence of the anti-poverty capacities of the MGNREGS. Perhaps the most rigorous came from the India Human Development Survey, which found that 14 million people escaped falling into poverty on account of it.

f)     As the country faced down it second successive drought this year, that disdain was momentarily put aside as the govt offered 50 extra days of work under the MGNREGS in drought-hit areas, realizing that the schemes effectiveness in lean agricultural seasons is proven.

8.

Barefoot College takes big strides to Paris (Page 13)

a)     National

a)     Barefoot women solar engineers project

b)     Paris Climate summit 2015

c)     India-Africa Forum Summit 

a)    Anticipating high-visibility global diplomacy during Paris climate talks, India has decided to project Barefoot women solar engineers (an initiative of Sanjit Bunker Roy) as a global success story crafted in India.

b)     As part of the Indian team at the climate dialogue, Roy would narrate on December 1 the story of how hundreds of women from least developed countries had formed a strong international network of clean energy propagators through south-south cooperation.

c)     The decision to highlight Barefoot women solar engineers in Paris comes after the India-Africa Forum Summit, during which Roys work was showcased as an Indian community-level clean energy success story.

d)     Under the programme, selected grandmothers and mothers from different rural parts of the world are brought to Barefoot College in Tilonia (Rajasthan), who are trained within six months to electrify their native communities under the care of a group of Indian rural electricians and engineers.

e)     The chief component of this initiative is to project solar and sustainable energy which benefits the lives of impoverished women in the least developed countries.

9.

Finance Minister and RBI Governor pat for Aadhaar (Page 16)

a)     National

b)     Economy

a)     Aadhaar

b)     Financial inclusion

c)     Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC)

a)     Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley spoke out against the fact that the Supreme Court is deliberating on the issue of Aadhaar being universally implemented saying that it is up to the government to decide the methodology of governance, not the courts.

b)     The Finance Minister clarified that courts can be concerned when fundamental rights are in question, but they have to be consistent.

c)     RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan said that Aadhaar is an important tool in banking. Aadhaar is extremely useful for a variety of aspects. One of the most important is the ability to build credit histories.

d)     He also said that India is currently going through a paradigm shift in how it is achieving financial inclusion. Where the earlier model saw access to credit as the big deficiency, the new paradigm is looking at a whole portfolio of instruments that can be used to help the individual.

e)     Rajan also said that the FSDC was close to completing a proposal that would significantly simplify banks KYC procedures, thus further bolstering financial inclusion.

10.

China stalling Indias exports, says Commerce Minister (Page 16)

a)     Economy

a)     Indias imports and exports

a)     Commerce Minister Nirmala Sitharaman expressed concern over China continuing to make efforts to stall Indias exports to that country.

b)     She said though emphasis was being laid on sectors such as pharma, IT/ ITES, gems & jewellery, textiles, fruits & vegetables and meat to improve Indias exports to China, that country has been making efforts to stall Indias exports through non-tariff barriers such as phyto-sanitary stipulations and standardisation measures.

c)     Indias merchandise trade deficit with China had shot up from just $1.1 billion in 2003-04 to a huge $48 billion in 2014-15, or around four times Indias shipments to China in the fiscal.

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