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Daily News Analysis 27-11-2015

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

ESSENCE OF THE ARTICLE

1.         

 

Pledges for Paris Climate Summit (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, pledges from 148 countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 are insufficient to limit global warming to 2 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels

2.

Dhaka rejects UN demand (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Bangladesh has strongly refuted the UN human rights bodys statement on war crimes trials, saying it was highly disturbing.

3.

China set to shake up military structure (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     President Xi Jinping said that China will shake up its military by establishing a joint operational command structure by 2020 and rejig existing military regions as part of overall reforms.

4.

Political shift in Argentina (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     The victory of Mauricio Macri (the Mayor of Buenos Aires) in Argentinas presidential election over the ruling Peronist partys Daniel Scioli, marks an end to the so-called Kirchner era, at least for now.

5.

Straws in the Paris wind (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     The Paris terror attacks seem to have challenged the ideals that form the basis of the European Union, a project that (many argue) is already on the verge of collapse. The supranational entity is clearly struggling to come up with an adequate response to terror.

6.

GST impasse continues as Sonia stands firm (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Even as the government maintained that it was keen on getting the controversial Goods and Services Tax Bill through in the current winter session of Parliament, Congress president Sonia Gandhi told that for their party, the three issues it had red-flagged were non-negotiable.

7.

Eminent citizens oppose order on AFSPA (Page 12)

a)     National

a)     Around 60 distinguished individuals from various walks of life have issued a statement protesting against a recent order of the Meghalaya High Court, directing the Central government to consider the use of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958, in the Garo Hills area.

8.

33 percent quota for women in forces (Page 12)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Home Minister Rajnath Singh told Parliament that the government was considering 33 percent reservation for women in the paramilitary forces.

 

 

 

 

S.NO.

NEWS ITEM

SYLLUBUS

BACKGROUND

IMPORTANT POINTS

1.         

 

Pledges for Paris Climate Summit (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Paris Climate Summit 2015

b)     Climate change

c)     Greenhouse gases (GHG)

d)     Global warming

e)     Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)

f)     UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

a)   According to the UNFCCC, pledges from 148 countries to cut GHG emissions by 2030 are insufficient to limit global warming to 2 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

b)     INDCs will limit forecast temperature rise to around 2.7 degree Celsius by 2100.

c)     China: Peak in CO2 emissions by 2027. Cut emissions by 60-65 percent of 2005 levels by 2030.

d)     US: Cut emissions by 17 percent by 2020 and by 26-28 percent by 2025, both against 2005 baseline.

e)     EU28: Reduce domestic GHG emissions by at least 40 percent by 2030, against 1990 baseline.

f)     India: 33-35 percent reduction in emissions intensity by 2030, compared to 2005. Triple renewable energy capacity by 2022.

2.

Dhaka rejects UN demand (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Bangladesh war crimes trials

b)     UNHRC

c)     UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

d)     International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

e)     International Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh

 

 

a)     Bangladesh has strongly refuted the UN human rights bodys statement on war crimes trials, saying it was highly disturbing.

b)     The UNs human rights office called on Bangladesh to stop implementing death sentences awarded by the war crimes tribunal given the doubts on its fairness. The statement came after two convicted war criminals were recently hanged.

c)     The UN OHCHR has also claimed that the trials were not fair and called for abolishing the death penalty.

d)     A letter from Bangladesh explained that the International Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh considered only the crimes committed by individuals in 1971, not related with present political status of the convicts.

e)     Bangladesh also reiterated that as a party to International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights it was obliged to maintain international standards in its judicial process.

3.

China set to shake up military structure (Page 14)

a)     International

a)     Chinas military structure

b)     South China Sea

c)     East China Sea

a)     President Xi Jinping said that China will shake up its military by establishing a joint operational command structure by 2020 and rejig existing military regions as part of overall reforms.

b)     Xi is determined to modernise the military at the same time as China gets more assertive in its territorial disputes in the East and South China Seas.

c)     China has been moving rapidly to upgrade its military hardware, but operational integration of complex and disparate systems across a regionalised command structure is a major challenge.

4.

Political shift in Argentina (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     Argentina elections

b)     Kirchner era

a)     The victory of Mauricio Macri (Mayor of Buenos Aires) in Argentinas presidential election over the ruling Peronist partys Daniel Scioli, marks an end to the so-called Kirchner era, at least for now.

b)     Over the past 12 years, the outgoing President Cristina Fernandez and her late husband Nestor Kirchner dominated the countrys polity, reshaping the character of the Argentine state into a welfare institution from being a free-market facilitator.

c)     Scioli had promised to follow the policies of Fernandez. But Macris offer to build 21st century development as opposed to 21st century socialism resonated better with a majority of voters at a time when Argentine economy was going through a tough phase.

d)    The late President Kirchner inherited a much worse economy in May 2003 when he assumed office. It is widely accepted that Argentinas market-driven policies of the 1990s (a period of blind deregulation of the economy) caused the financial meltdown of 2001-2002.

e)     Fernandez faced a serious economic challenge in 2011 when commodity prices fell globally. This derailed her governments expenditure-driven development model.

f)     Fernandezs combative style of governance was also criticised both inside and outside the country for its authoritarian tendencies, Macri built his campaign on these concerns of the general public, and reaped benefit.

g)     The election also provides Macri an opportunity to offer better-quality governance that would continue the progressive policies of the Kirchner era while taking steps to rejuvenate the sagging economy and strengthen the democratic institutions of the South American country.

5.

Straws in the Paris wind (Page 10)

a)     International

a)     Paris terror attacks

b)     Islamic State (IS)

c)     Syria crisis

d)     Europe Refugee crisis

e)    Schengen Agreement

a)     According to the author, the Paris terror attacks seem to have challenged foundational ideals that form the basis of the EU, a project (many argue) is already on verge of collapse. Clearly, the supranational European entity is struggling to cobble together adequate responses to a phenomenon that traditional states have summarily failed in doing.

b) With France declaring a state of emergency and suspending the Schengen Agreement indefinitely, the grand dream of a borderless Europe and its impressive promise - the free movement of persons is a fundamental right guaranteed by the EU to its citizens.

c)     Schengen cooperation enhances this freedom by enabling citizens to cross internal borders without being subjected to border checks - are facing a huge challenge.

d)     France had already taken necessary clearances to suspend the Schengen Agreement for a month in preparation for the forthcoming Paris Climate Conference.

e)     The terror attacks have made the suspension indefinite and at the moment there is no clarity on when the suspension will be withdrawn, with French officials insisting that the full free flow of people and goods can happen only when the two key expectations from the Schengen system are properly implemented.

f)    The uneven focus on border control stems from the fact that the problems of insecurity and terrorism are felt differently by different states, and so they deal with them differently. The survival of a unified Europe requires a fine balance between the unique realpolitik instincts and strategic priorities of its member states, and its supranational ideals.

g)     Terror has an uncanny capacity to provoke hard-line political reactions, and France is no exception. French President Francois Hollande (a socialist leader) is under immense pressure from both the citizens and right wing parties in the wake of the terror attacks. With the regional elections in France round the corner, Hollande seems to have stolen the thunder from the right-wing by sounding exactly like them.

h)     By declaring emergency, closing the borders, declaring a pitiless war on terror, and amplifying the bombing campaign in Syria, the Socialist Party leader is riding high on popularity charts and is set to take on the right-wing National Front in upcoming elections.

i)     The terror attacks in Paris are quickly leading to a humanitarian catastrophe of immense proportions for the refugees fleeing the ruthless methods of the Daesh and the air campaigns of the West.

j)     The refugee flow (to be clear) is itself a result of the ongoing Western war on terror in West Asia. The renewed war efforts in the wake of the terror attacks would drive more refugees towards the West which (unlike in the recent past) is unwilling to admit them into its own borders.

k)     Finally, will the liberal Europe (traditionally friendly towards refugees, promoter of human rights and defender of modern liberal values, often giving unsolicited advice to Asian and African states on the need to respect religious diversity and human rights) survive shocking recognition that security comes first, the rest can follow?

6.

GST impasse continues as Sonia stands firm (Pages 1 and 12)

a)     National

b)     Polity

a)     Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill  

b)     Constitution (Amendment) Bill

c)     Lok Sabha

d)     Rajya Sabha

e)     Parliament

a)     Even as the government maintained that it was keen on getting the controversial GST Bill through in the current winter session of Parliament, Congress president Sonia Gandhi told that for their party, the three issues it had red-flagged were non-negotiable.

b)     The issues which the Congress said it would not compromise on are the 1 percent tax for manufacturers, the constitutional cap of 18 percent for GST rate and an independent dispute resolution mechanism for GST.

c)     Naidu maintained that of the 32 political parties who met 30 were on board, but the govt did not want to have the Congress on board. However, given that this is a Constitution (Amendment) Bill and therefore requires two-thirds of those present and voting in each of the Houses, it will be difficult for govt to muster the numbers without the support of Congress and Left parties in Rajya Sabha.

7.

Eminent citizens oppose order on AFSPA (Page 12)

a)     National

a)     Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) 1958

b)     Garo Hills

 

a)     Around 60 distinguished individuals from various walks of life have issued a statement protesting against a recent order of the Meghalaya High Court, directing the Central govt to consider the use of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958, in the Garo Hills area.

b)     The said direction issued by the High Court of Meghalaya is in complete violation of the Constitutional arrangement of separation of powers. The power to notify an area as disturbed and extend application of the AFSPA lies exclusively with the executive, that is, State or Central govt.

c)     According to the eminent citizens, the instant order severely damages the credibility of the High Court of Meghalaya as an independent arbiter of citizens democratic rights.

d)     The AFSPA is widely considered to be a legislative measure unique in its absolute disregard of the rights of the residents against unlawful exercise of coercive power. The law exposes people to wanton and reckless use of force by security forces as it grants them absolute power and authority to use force.

e)     The use of the AFSPA as a substitute for routine policing and maintaining law and order is a dangerous development. It is one that a High Court should not condone, and certainly not perpetuate.

8.

33 percent quota for women in forces (Page 12)

a)     National

b)     Social issue

a)     Gender equality

b)     Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

c)     Border Security Force (BSF)

d)     Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

e)     Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

f)     Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

g)     Assam Rifles

a)     Home Minister Rajnath Singh told Parliament that the government was considering 33 percent reservation for women in the paramilitary forces.

b)     According to the data available with the Ministry of Home Affairs, women comprise only 2.04 percent of the paramilitary forces. Forces like the CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF, SSB and Assam Rifles together constitute a 9.8 lakh-strong force. Of these, only 19,575 are women.

c)     Officials said the State govts may or may not agree with the Centre over this and Ministry of Home Affairs will have no control over it. There are practical difficulties in employing women in paramilitary forces as there are few takers for jobs in difficult terrain and border areas.

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