CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR BEGINNERS
- National Green tribunal
- Reserved Forests
- Protected Forests
- Unclassified Forests
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India
- Scrub typus
- Acute Encephalitis Syndrome
- Inner Line Permit
- Protected Areas Permit
- National Green tribunal:-
NGT was established in 2010 under NGT act with its principal bench in Delhi. Its objective is to provide an effective and speedy disposal of cases pertaining to environment protection, conservation of forests and for seeking compensation or damages caused to people or property due to violation of environmental laws.
The NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues that are linked to the following laws-
The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974;
The forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
The Air (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981;
The Environment (protection) Act, 1986;
The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991;
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
There is a bar on civil court to take cases under these listed laws in schedule 1 of NGT act.
The NGT has not been vested with powers to hear any matter relating to the Wild life (Protection) Act, 1972, the Indian Forest Act , 1927 and various laws enacted by states relating to forests, tree preservation etc. The NGT is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.
- Reserved Forests:-
These forests are under the direct supervision of the government and no public entry is allowed for collection of timber or grazing of cattle. About 53 percent of the total forest area falls in this category.
- Protected Forests:-
These forest s are looked after by the government, but the local people are allowed to collect fuel – wood / timber and graze their cattle without causing serious damage to the forests. These forests occupy about 29 percent of the total forest area of the country.
- Unclassified Forests:-
The unclassified forests are those in which there is no restriction on the cutting of trees and grazing of cattle. About 18 percent of the total forest area of the country falls under this category.
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India:-
The Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for CAG an independent office of the comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG). He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels – the Centre and the state. His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and laws of parliament in the field of financial administration. This is the reason why Dr B R Ambedkar said that the CAG shall be the most important officer under the Constitution of India. He is one of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India, the others being the Supreme Court, the Election Commission and the Union public Service Commission.
He holds office for a period of six years or upto the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. He can resign any time from his office by addressing the resignation letter to the President.
- Scrub typus:-
It is an acute illness caused by bacterium orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by the bite of an infected mite larva present in the soil. It is a Mite – borne disease. Symptoms are fever, a primary lesion, a macular rash, and lymphadenopathy.
- Acute Encephalitis Syndrome:-
Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is characterized by an acute onset of fever and clinical neurological manifestation that includes mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma 1. Viruses have been mainly attributed to be the cause of AES in India although other sources such as bacteria, fungus, parasites, spirochetes, chemical and toxins have been reported over the past few decades. Apart from viral encephalitis, severe form of leptospirosis and toxo plasmosis can cause AES. The causative agent of AES varies with season and geographical location, and predominantly affects population below 15 years. Keeping in mind the wide range of casual agents and the rapid rate of neurological impairment due to pathogenesis, clinicians face the challenge of a small window period between diagnosis and treatment.
It is the abbreviation of ‘’ British Exit’’ from the European Union (EU).
- The E U is a political, trade and economic union founded in 1957.
- The EU evolved over decades and reached its present model in 1992.
- There are 51 countries in Europe, out of which 28 countries have signed a treaty to become a part of European Union.
The Euro area (EA) is a subset of the EU, which is a monetary union of 19of the 28 countries which use the common currency, Euro. Not all EU members use the Euro. Britain is an EU member, It is not part of the EA . It does not use the Euro and has retained its own currency, the pound Sterling.
‘Leave EU’ campaign:-
The Leave campaign argues that Britain is losing out a big deal by staying in the EU.
It has to pay millions of pounds each week as a contribution to the European budget. The extremely bureaucratic nature of the European parliament is hurting British exporters.
Migration from the European Union into Britain (mainly PIGS economies) is creating an imbalance in the welfare schemes of the U K government. But, those who oppose the campaign say that Britain is a net gainer if She stays in E U.
Referendum are votes in which everyone (or nearly every one) of voting age can take part, normally giving a ‘Yes ‘or ‘No ‘answer to a question. The side which gets more than half of all votes cast is declared a winner.
- Inner Line Permit:-
Inner line permit (ILP) is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow travel of an Indian Citizen into a protected area for a limited period. It is an Obligatory for Indian Citizens from outside certain states, to obtain such a permit.
Under the ILP system, a certificate can be issued to outsiders only for travel in the areas covered by ILP. A non –resident also cannot buy property in these areas. Long term residence however, is allowed under certain kinds of ILP. Such provisions though are not valid for Central government employees and security personnel.
- Protected Areas Permit:-
Under the Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order, 1958, all areas falling between the ‘Inner Line’ as defined in the said order and the International Border of the State have been declared as a Protected Area. Currently, protected Areas are located in the following States:-
- Whole of Arunachal Pradesh
- Parts of Himachal Pradesh
- Parts of Jammu & Kashmir
- Whole of Manipur
- Whole of Mizoram
- Whole of Nagaland
- Parts of Rajasthan
- Whole of Sikkim (Partly in protected Area and Party in Restricted Area)
- Parts of Uttarakhand
- Parts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- Parts of Lakshadweep
A foreign national is not normally allowed to visit a protected/ Restricted Area unless it is established to the satisfaction of the Government that there are extra –ordinary reasons to justify such a visit. Every foreigner , except a citizen of Bhutan, who desires to enter and stay in a Protected or Restricted Area is required to obtain a special permit from a competent authority delegated with powers to issue such a special permit to a foreigner , on application.
Questions of the day:-
- Xingkong-2, recently seen in news is a
(a) Fighter jet with scramjet engine
(b) Hypersonic aircraft
(c) Anti-missile defence system
(d) Cruise missile
Correct Answer: b
- Which of the following committees is called as mother of all parliamentary committees?
(a) Estimates Committee
(b) Committee on Public undertakings
(c) Public accounts Committee
(d) Business advisory Committee
Correct answer: C