CORE NOTES (23-08-2018)
- National Disaster Management plan 2016
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-III: -Disaster Management]
- This is the first ever national plan prepared in the country.
- The NDMP has been aligned broadly with the goals and priorities set out in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
[The Sendai Framework was adopted by UN Member States on 18 March 2015 at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.
The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
It aims for the following outcome:
The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.
The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.
It is the outcome of stakeholder consultations initiated in March 2012 and inter-governmental negotiations held from July 2014 to March 2015, which were supported by the UNISDR upon the request of the UN General Assembly.
UNISDR has been tasked to support the implementation, follow-up and review of the Sendai Framework.]
- NDMP states clearly that any voluntary offer of assistance from any other country can be accepted.
- International cooperation of the NDMP reads: “As a matter of policy, the Government of India does not issue any appeal for foreign assistance in the wake of a disaster. However, if the national government of another country voluntarily offers assistance as a good-will gesture in solidarity with the disaster victims, the central government may accept the offer.”
- The Vision of the Plan is to “Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.
- For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities enunciated in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Actions:
o Understanding Risk
o Inter-Agency Coordination
o Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
o Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
o Capacity Development
- The Response part of the Plan has identified eighteen broad activities which have been arranged into a matrix to be served as a ready reckoner:
o Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information Dissemination
o Evacuation of People and Animals
o Search and Rescue of People and Animals
o Medical Care
o Drinking Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
o Food & Essential Supplies
o Housing and Temporary Shelters
o Relief Logistics and Supply Chain Management
o Disposal of Animal Carcasses
o Fodder for livestock in scarcity-hit areas
o Rehabilitation and Ensuring Safety of Livestock and other Animals, Veterinary Care
o Data Collection and Management
o Relief Employment
- Media Relations
- The Plan has also incorporated a Chapter on Strengthening Disaster Risk Governance.
- The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) provides a framework and direction to the government agencies for all phases of disaster management cycle.
- State can stop voluntary retirement of doctors:-
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-II: – Indian Constitution]
Art-47 says “Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.”
It deals with Fundamental duties.
To practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business
Reasonable restrictions to FRs:-
However, the Fundamental Rights are not absolute and subject to reasonable restrictions. Further, they are not sacrosanct and can be curtailed or repealed by the Parliament through a constitutional amendment act. They can also be suspended during the operation of a National Emergency except the rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21.Public interest.
- TAPI pipeline:-
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-II: – International Relations]
TAPI gas pipeline project or Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline is a proposed trans-country natural gas pipeline developed by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
The pipeline first proposed in 1995 will transport natural gas from energy rich Caspian Sea (Galkynysh gasfields: fourth largest in the world) in Turkmenistan to India through Afghanistan into Pakistan
Construction on the project started in Turkmenistan on December 2015. It is expected to be operational by 2019.
The project will supply both India and Pakistan about 38 mmscmd of natural gas whereas Afghanistan will get 14 mmscmd supply.
The life of supply is expected to last for period of 30 years and shall be operational from 2019.
TAPI gas pipeline project is considered as an important initiative of these four countries as it connects energy rich Central Asia with energy starved South Asia.
It will enhance economic engagement through regional connectivity by economically integrating region stretching from the Bay of Bengal to the Caspian Sea.
It will not just be a commercial project, but also help in providing peace and security in the region.
From India’s perspective, TAPI Project will provide an alternative supply source of gas with dependable reserves leading to enhanced energy security.
It will further diversify the fuel basket to the benefit of Indian economy as it would be used mainly in power, fertilizer and city gas sectors.
- ISRO awaits advanced materials
[Topic: UPSC mains GS-3: Science and technology]
It is the human space flight program set for 2022 by ISRO.
In 2022, 3 Indian astronauts, mostly flight pilots from IAF, will circle earth for seven days from a distance of 300-400km.
They will travel in a 7000-kg crew capsule. A GSLV-MK-III launch vehicle will lift them to their orbit.
When it achieves the mission, India would be fourth nation to circle Earth after Soviets, the Americas and the Chinese.
In 1984, India’s first astronaut wing Commander (retd.)Rakesh Sharma orbited Earth as part of soviet mission.
A jet engine is a machine that converts energy-rich, liquid fuel into a powerful pushing force called thrust. The thrust from one or more engines pushes a plane forward, forcing air past its scientifically shaped wings to create an upward force called lift that powers it into the sky.
A scramjet (“supersonic combustion ramjet”) is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow. As in ramjets, a scramjet relies on high vehicle speed to compress the incoming air forcefully before combustion (hence ramjet), but whereas a ramjet decelerates the air to subsonic velocities before combustion, the airflow in a scramjet is supersonic throughout the entire engine. That allows the scramjet to operate efficiently at extremely high speeds.
Re-usable launch vehicle:-
RLV-TD is winged body aerospace vehicle that operated in hypersonic flight regime. It is capable of launching satellites into orbit around earth and then re-enter the atmosphere
- QUAD countries discuss ocean security
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-II: – International Relations]
The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad) is an informal strategic dialogue between the United States, Japan, Australia and India that is maintained by talks between member countries. The dialogue was initiated in 2007 The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar.
The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and the Chinese government responded to the Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members.
- Indo-pak. Ties key to regional stability: china
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-II: – International Relations]
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China) by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan. It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism.
The historical meeting of the Heads of State Council of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation was held on 8-9 June 2017 in Astana. On the meeting the status of a full member of the Organization was granted to the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The SCO comprises eight member states, namely the Republic of India, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan;
The SCO’s main goals are as follows: strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states; promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas; making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region; and moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.
The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decision-making body in the SCO. It meets once a year and adopts decisions and guidelines on all important matters of the organisation.
The SCO Heads of Government Council (HGC) meets once a year to discuss the organisation’s multilateral cooperation strategy and priority areas, to resolve current important economic and other cooperation issues, and also to approve the organisation’s annual budget.
The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese. The SCO counts four observer states, namely the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Belarus, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Mongolia;
The SCO has six dialogue partners, namely the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the Republic of Turkey, and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
- In search of greatness
Fields medal, popularly seen as the equivalent of a Nobel Prize, is awarded once in four years to two-four mathematicians below the age of 40.
- Pulling back from the brink
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-III: – Environment]
A “greenhouse Earth” or “hothouse Earth” is a period in which there are no continental glaciers whatsoever on the planet, the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (such as water vapor and methane) are high, and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) range from 28 °C (82.4 °F) in the tropics to 0 °C (32 °F) in the polar regions.
Causes of greenhouse Earth:-
There are several theories as to how a greenhouse Earth can come about. The geological record shows CO2 and other greenhouse gases are abundant during this time.
Tectonic movements were extremely active during the more well-known greenhouse ages.
Because of continental rifting (continental plates moving away from each other) volcanic activity becomes more prominent, producing more CO2 and heating up the Earth’s atmosphere.
Earth is more commonly placed in a greenhouse state throughout the epochs, and the Earth has been in this state for approximately 80% of the past 500 million years.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and its related effects.
Green house gases:-
A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of greenhouse gases.
- Tilting at windmills
[Topic: UPSC Mains GS-III :- Indian economy]
A situation in which countries try to damage each other’s trade, typically by the imposition of tariffs or quota restrictions.
Questions of the day:-
- Consider the following statements:
- At National level, the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal ministry for all matters concerning disaster management.
- Disaster management is the subject under concurrent list.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer: A
- Which of the following constitutional articles have a bearing on health?
- Article 38
- Article 39(e)
- Article 41
- Article 42
- Article 47
- Article 48A
Select the correct answer using the codes below.
- 1, 2 and 6 only
- 3, 4 and 5 only
- 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 only
- All of the above
Correct Answer: D