ARC 4th Report – Ethics and Governance

ARC 4th Report – Ethics and Governance highlights are:

  • Ethics, Ethics and Governance, Colonial legacy, Corruption, Liberalization, Over-regulation, Centralization, Victim of corruption


Note – Click or Tap on the Question and Recommended Answer tab above to see the Question on the topic and Answer

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ARC 4th Report – Ethics and Governance

  • Ethics is a set of standards that society places on itself and which helps to guide behavior, choices and actions. It requires a robust culture of integrity that needs to be promoted through
  • Corruption is a manifestation of failure of Ethics. There are two approaches in dealing with corruption. The first emphasizes on values and character. The other approach believes that Human beings are fundamentally decent and a certain deviant faction tend to pursue personal gain at the cost of the public interest.
  • In the real world values and institutions both matter. Values without institutional support will soon be weakened and dissipated.
  • If good behavior is consistently rewarded and bad behavior consistently punished, majority of the people follow the straight and narrow path.
  • In a society which worships power, it is easy for the public officials to deviate from the ethical conduct (Colonial legacy).
  • Asymmetry of power in our society – It reduces social pressure to conform to ethical behavior and makes it easy to indulge in corruption.
  • Over-regulation, excessive state control, economy of scarcity all created conditions conducive for corruption.
  • Monopoly and discretion increases corruption while competition (enhanced supply and choice) and transparency reduces corruption.
  • Over centralization increases the corruption.
  • More remotely the power is exercised from the people, greater is the distance between authority and accountability.
  • Every democracy require empowerment of citizens in order to hold those in authority to account.
  • The most important determinant of the integrity of a society or the prevalence of the corruption is quality of politics.
  • Liberalization with corresponding political and governance reforms to alter the incentives in politics and public office promotes integrity and ethical conduct.
  • As the economy is freed from state controls, coercive corruption declines and collusive corruption tends to increase.
  • Citizen is an unwilling victim of corruption.

Question on the Topic

The challenge of corruption is to have proper politico administrative systems distinct and different from the past. It needs an establishment of connection between accountability and authority. Elaborate ?

Instructor recommended answer for this question is posted under “Question & Recommended Answer” tab above.

Question on the Topic

The challenge of corruption is to have proper politico administrative systems distinct and different from the past. It needs an establishment of connection between accountability and authority. Elaborate ?

Recommended Answer

Word Count: not mentioned   Time Spent: not mentioned

The political and administrative systems of the past have an overbearing influence of centralization, culture of secrecy, colonial attitude of looking at people as subjects rather than citizens etc., all leading to the increased corruption and abysmal standards of service from the government. To address this issue of corruption and its various manifestations, We need to have new kind of political and administrative systems which promotes decentralization, transparency, accountability etc., by putting citizens at the center of their thinking.

The problem with the past political systems is that the centres of power are located at distant from the people, about whom they make the decisions, making it difficult to hold them accountable. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments had been brought in to address this issue and to promote decentralization, there by leading grassroots democracy and empowerment of people. These amendments have envisaged decentralized form of government’s-near to the people-where it is easy to hold them accountable, however this has remained an unfulfilled dream. With increasing awareness among people about politics, we seeing winds of change on the ground about political decentralization and accountability of politicians.

Also the influence of colonial administrative setup is still visible on our administration. There is great asymmetry in the exercise of power in our society where people feel dis-empowered and those in administration enjoy unequal power. This asymmetry has led to widespread corruption and phenomena of government officials involving in corrupt acts with impunity.

To address these issues we need to bring the centres of authority near to the people. Recent administrative reforms like Right to time bound service, Citizen’s charter, E-governance, performance evaluation of the public organizations by the people etc., are in this direction.

January 16, 2016
  • Bhuvaneshwari Mani

    where to get all videos of ethics lecture

  • A student

    Sir i am not able to download the notes…,,please look after this…

  • abhinav gupta

    Sir,download now tab of My notes is not working.please check!

  • nandish patel

    i am telling this as it was easy to answer.
    if u want u can again ask sir.
    collusive corruption refers to the corruption ending by the greeds of two self integrating persons. Take for example a contractor , constructing any govt building , mixing the cement and sand in an inappropriate ratio and it comes to the knowledge of supervisor. now both constructor bribing the supervisor gains and supervisor by getting the bribe gains . this is an example of collusive corruption.

    coercive corruption , lets understand it by example , you become an honest IAS officer , under the pressure of ministers or any mafia king s threat to you or family you take the money or without taking the money allows illegal act to pass is coersion,
    in former the act is collusive by collaboration and in latter its by coercion i.e suppression, force, threat.
    hope u understnd.

  • nandish patel

    Sir please review.

  • Rubik Cube

    Corruption today is a household term. But to find the ways
    to curb this nuisance is very challenging. To eliminate this, at first, there
    is a need of proper politico administrative system unlike the colonial legacy.
    In past, due the unchallenged authority there was a proclivity of abuse of
    powers. Moreover, then society worshiped the power so that public servants deviated
    from the moral conduct easily. There was huge asymmetry of power, which reduces
    the social pressure to conform to ethical behaviour. So to eradicate this
    social disease and to form politico administrative system following steps have
    to be taken-

    1. Value and Character: In society the Values and character have
    to be encouraged.

    2. Ethical behaviour has to be rewarded and corrupt
    bahaviour have to be punished. So that people follow the straight and narrow

    3. Institutional framework: In reality values are established
    though such institutions. Otherwise the concept of values of will be weaken day
    by day. Thus there is must be proper institutional framework to promote ethical

    4. Competition and decentralization: Competition and decentralization
    also certainly hinders the monopoly and discretion of the society.

    5. Analysis of anti-corruption law: A detailed analysis is
    also required to find out the loopholes in it.

    6. Whistleblower: Whistleblower legislation has to be established to ensure the security of the informer.

    7. Citizen Empowerment: Citizen empowerment is a crucial
    thing for democracy so that the citizens can hold those in authority for

    8. Public authority gap: More the public will be remote to
    exercise their power more the distance will increase between the authority and
    accountability. So to reduce the gap between the public and the authority, the
    significance of e-governance can hardly be exaggerated or over-estimated.

    Thus, in this way a proper politico administrative system
    distinct and different from the past can be built though the establishment of
    connection between accountability and authority.

  • Aayush Kumar

    Dear sir,
    Kindly evaluate.

  • Aseem

    Sir, with due respect I request you to provide your model answer. This helps us in reviewing our answer and judging our progress.
    Please consider it sir!

    Thanks for all your support.

  • Zee Krishna

    One of the biggest issues being faced by most of the nations around the world
    today, is corruption. Despite large scale protests, agitations, in India, the
    elephantine issue refuses to budge. Thus, the need of the hour is a whole new
    politico-administrative system that can establish connectivity between
    accountability and authority. It can be achieved by –

    I. Reducing the gap between people and governments

    ii. Ushering the system of minimum government and maximum governance.

    The large gaps between the ruling &
    administrative class reduces the social pressure to conform to ethical
    behaviour, leading to corruptible practices. This can be addressed by involving
    people and making them more participatory in a democratic decision making
    arena. This keeps the misuse of authority in check and public engagement with
    government enforces accountability.

    Minimum government and maximum
    governance involves strengthing of processes and procedures from the smallest
    level, of day-to-day administrative tasks. For example: subsidy payments to
    farmers, obtaining a passport, pension payments, applying for property
    registration, etc. The system has to be simplified by reducing paperwork or
    steps involved, newer methods of electronic payments to be implemented, thus
    making them user friendly and corruption free. Governance should be made
    process oriented rather than person oriented to ensure transparency.
    Word count: 205

  • Student001

    Sir Please provide feedback to my answer. Thanks

  • Mns UD

    with time their is progess and change in every aspect including politico administrative system , their is robust increase administrative structure and its complications , also the distance between authority and accountability .
    so their is need for simplifications of procedure, citizens participation in administration(social audit by gram sabha) . transparency(RTI) , information sharing by (maximum disclosure , open publishing ) , process to facilitate to access.

  • Aseem

    From being a centralised Politico administrative systems where corruption bred by License Raj, controlling of resources and immense discretion, the state has to move towards new Admini setups in order to challenge corruption. These setups would be more towards decrentralised and less leader-centric institutions.
    Move towards a participatory form of governance reduces the distance between accountability and authority, thus reducing corruption. A more open form of governance styles are to be encouraged with new reforms in government mechanisms like RTI, Citizen charters etc where the thrust is on making the system more efficient and free from Red tapism where authorities discretion are taken away.
    India has been following the path right from the last 3 decades. The change has been resisted by many times but there have been revolutions like the one for Jan Lokpal bill which forced the change.
    The more the country moves towards liberalization the more competition increases, the more state losses control over the resources, the less discretion is left with the officers, thereby reducing corruption. With the new ICT technologies available, the discretion is further reduced and the gap between accountability and authority is stemming down greatly with sting operations and more freedom to the press.
    We need to move forward in the pursued direction and challenge the corruption which has become a norm rather an exception to the society but without change in Politics the effort would be too huge.

  • Ratna Praveena

    Sir, please find the attached answer. Thank you for all your efforts..

  • Affu

    The only constant thng in life is change.As the evolution of human civilisation progresses,society develops various political,adminsitrative and economic systems.In india though our poltical system of democracy has remained more or less same with further deepening and decentralisation economic system has undergone drastic changes from state being at the helm of affairs to new public management.Hence factors like scarcity of goods,monopoly,discretion which gave way to coercive bribery have changed in the liberalisation era .In the wake of increasing competition,transparency coercive corruption is bound to increase.Hence any poltical administrative system intended to curb corruption should take into account these changes.The colonial legacy of worshipping power,assymetry of power,overcentralisation has made citizen unwilling victim of corruption,therefore ,there is a dire need to eshtablish connection between accountability and authority.This needs improving quality of poltics by reducing centralisation,personality cult ,promoting diversity in leadership positions ,internal democracy.Instituitional mechanisma to hold bureaucrats accountable and make their decisions transparent should be implemented.this includes existing mechanisms like RTI,Whistelblowers act and Some yet to be legislated reforms like right of citizens to time bound delivery of goods and services

  • Mns UD

    IS their any need of self reading of these reports apart from this videos & notes.. thank you sir.

  • Prabhakar Mula

    When society shifted to normal to Industrial revolution they are three economic classes society emerged they are
    1)Higher classes like Capitalist who invest money profit motive only.
    2)Middle classes like Manager,doctor,teacher etc who gets the salary according to they skills or education qualification.
    3)Lower classes like daily wage labor or non skills person who gets the income according to their work
    In past these classes had accountability and authority and also trusted each other ,present scenario completely change there is absence of mutual understanding each other and also cheated one classes to another classes indirect way they getting corrupted.
    so present society it should required for connection between authority and accountability it helps to corruption free and better society .It also needs digital process for transparency.

  • Pankaj Gupta

    The root of of corruption in India is hierarchy in Indian administration and patronage client relationship in absence of voice and power difference perception of a common individual,due to which they are completely exploited and corruption prevail. a major initiative taken by whistle blower and rti activist to fight against it also curtail down by the people in power .
    Moreover, authority seems to be less accountable and are not checked throughly which further worsened the situation.the people are less concerned in absence of power ,law , regulation ,etc because of which administrative take the advantages. hence , to overcome such situation need of hour is to have a administrative reform
    such a digitization through e-governance , scheme like DBT, etc are very much in line of declining the difference between authority and autonomy and bring transparency to the entire system.
    In the above context to reduce corruption not only vigilance but a societal empowerment is also needed as root of corruption is traced in every level in India. so to get a largest democracy work in a manner to accommodate well being of all section of society corruption have to be fight in all level.

  • targetIAS

    corruption in present Indian context has crept every dimension. one among these dimensions is quality of politics and way of administrative governance. Looking at administrative governance in India, the policy maker essentially comprise cabinet and few bureaucratic. These policies are intended for common man which flows from hierarchy of cabinet to local governance. The hierarchy lead the middle man to exploit the benefits of public funds for his personal uses. The accountability of these middle to common people was hampered due to hierarchy.Hence, lead to gap b/w accountability and authority.
    coming to quality of politics, which is closely linked to administrative system, parties do spend large sum to win. And the won person with a intention to compensate the loss, develops attachment to person willingness over public service. Hence, in the due course of his/her administration he chooses unethical path of governance. Also, to be not being questioned by other for his/her actions done, he/she misuses the constitutionally provided power to establish superiority to common man. So, he/she doesn’t respond to public laments, hampering idea of accountability.
    Thus, for a Democratic governed nation like India, tackling corruption pays path for prosperity, growth and alleviates inequality of status and opportunity enshrined in constitution. For this to happen, awareness regarding ethical norms with strong institutions protecting and safeguarding these norms are required.Also, as present world is technology driven, use of e-governance mechanism ensures transparency, accountability and can act as holistic means of checking corruption.

  • Rishika

    Sir. Please explain the difference between collusive corruption and coercive corruption.

  • Mns UD

    THANK U SIR. WILL U COVER REPORT 4 . OF ARC ONLY or other parts of 2nd ARC.

    Sir tell us which reports of 2nd ARC are important out of the 15 reports . which are must read and which of the reports you will cover..
    eagerly waiting for the reply


    thanks a lot sir ..

  • surbhee

    thank you so much sir. It’s really easy to grasp the important points.

  • Prabhakar Mula

    Thanku Sir& plz post mindmapping diagram of Ethical goverance day wise.

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