ARC 4th Report – Ethics and Politics

ARC 4th Report – Ethics and Politics highlights are:

  • Ethics and politics – Recent initiatives in cleansing corruption in politics, State funding of elections, Committees in India on state funding of elections, Election and other related laws (amendment) act 2003, Disqualifications on grave criminal charges, Political defections and Anti-defection law, Disqualification under art 102, Publication of accounts by political parties, Coalition politics and Ethics, Appointment of Election commissioners, Election petitions


Note – Click or Tap on the Question and Recommended Answer tab above to see the Question on the Topic and Answer

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ARC 4th Report - Ethics and Politics

Ethics and Politics

Ethical framework for governance in a democracy begins with ethical values in politics. Standards set in politics will influence other aspects of governance.

Issues include

  • Criminalization of politics – it is participation of criminals in our electoral process. The reasons for its growth include
    1. Weakness in the justice delivery system is making the people to seek for an alternative speedy justice. This acceptance is providing a space for criminals to enter in to politics. Opportunity to convert police from an adversary to an ally is a motivation to seek political power
  • Illegal and illegitimate expenditure in elections is another root cause of corruption and mal-governance

Recent initiatives in cleansing corruption in politics

  1. 91st AA
  2. EVM
  3. Improvement in accuracy of electoral rolls through computerization and fair revision process, voter id cards
  4. Disclosure of antecedents of candidates – criminal record, assets and liabilities
  5. Disqualification of persons convicted of criminal offence
  6. Code of conduct

The major Issue that need to be addressed include Money factor and other Inducements in elections.

State funding of elections


  1. Minimalist pattern – elections alone are partially subsidized. Ex – UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada.
  2. Maximalist pattern – state funding for elections and all other party activities. Ex – Germany, Sweden
  3. Mixed pattern Partial reimbursement for public funding on a matching grant basis – France, Netherlands, South Korea.

Committees in India on state funding of elections

  1. Dinesh goswami committee – 1990 – it recommended limited support, ban on company donations. Parties shall file their income tax and wealth tax returns.
  2. Indrajit gupta committee – partial state funding of elections mainly in kind.
  3. NCRWC – state funding of elections shall be deferred till strong regulatory system is put in place.

2nd ARC – partial state funding shall be introduced.

Election and other related laws (amendment) act 2003

  1. Full tax exemptions to individuals and corporates
  2. Expenditure by third parties and political parties will come under expenditure ceiling
  3. Disclosure of party donations greater than Rs 20, 000
  4. Indirect public funding to candidates of recognized political parties
  5. Equitable sharing of time by recognized political parties on cable television networks.


Disqualifications on grave criminal charges

There shall be a fair reconciliation between the candidate right to contest and the community’s right to good representation.

Given the delays in criminal justice system, disqualification after conviction is an insufficient safeguard. So, section 8 of RPA, 1951 need to be amended to disqualify all persons facing charges related to grave and heinous offense and corruption.

Political defections and Anti-defection law

EC recommendations –

  1. Internal election in political parties to elect their leaders
  2. Disqualification under anti-defection law shall be decided by the president or governor on recommendation of election commission. – 2nd ARC agrees to this opinion

Disqualification under art 102

Parliament by law can prescribe for exhaustive list of disqualifications for MP under art 102(e) and the state legislatures under Art 198(e).

Publication of accounts by political parties

Political parties have a responsibility to maintain proper accounts and shall get them audited annually. Such audited reports shall be placed in public domain.

Coalition politics and Ethics

Coalition partners are changing loyalties midstream and they are driven by opportunism leading to political instability. So, a common minimum program has to be formed explicitly before the elections or implicitly after the elections before forming the Government. Realignment of coalition midway shall lead to the disqualification of members. Constitution shall be amended for the purpose.

Appointment of Election commissioners

Appointment of CEC and other EC shall be by president of India on the recommendations of a collegium.

Election petitions

Time bound disposal of cases by the special benches constituted for the purpose in the high court.

Question on the topic

Ethical framework for governance in a democracy begins with ethical values in politics. What do you think are the steps India shall take up in making election process more relevant for Indian democracy ?

Instructor recommended answer for this question is posted under “Question & Recommended Answer” tab above.

Question on the topic

Ethical framework for governance in a democracy begins with ethical values in politics. What do you think are the steps India shall take up in making election process more relevant for Indian democracy ?

Recommended Answer

Word Count: not mentioned   Time Spent: not mentioned

The governance of the day is being hobbled by the corruption and electoral malpractices and the obvious remedy lies in bringing ethical values into politics, which forms the basis of governance. Even Gandhi had opined that politics without principles is  one of the seven original sins. In order to bring values into politics the first step is to reform our electoral politics.

Elections forms of the very core of any democracy and to make our election process relevant to our democracy, the following reforms have to brought in.

  1. Criminalisation of politics is one the major problem affecting our polity and there is an immediate need to end this menace by bringing reforms. The repeal of Section 8(4) of RP act (Representation of peoples act ) by the supreme court is a step in the right direction. As recommended by 2nd ARC the section 8 of RP Act has to be amended to disqualify all those who are facing grave and heinous charges of offense and corruption.
  2. In Order to address the problem of money power, the 2nd ARC has recommended the state funding of the elections and at least we should try this on pilot basis.
  3. The issue of paid news is also one of the menace affecting our elections and this has to addressed by proper implementation of Model code of conduct and also by proper publication of accounts and their audit reports.
  4. An exhaustible list of disqualification for the members of parliament and the state legislators has to be prepared by the parliament under Article 102 and by the state legislature under Article 198 respectively
  5. To address the problem of political defections as seen recently in Arunchal Pradesh the effective implementation of Anti defection law is needed and to end the misuse of this law, The power to disqualify members under the law should be placed in President or Governor on the recommendation of Election Commission. 2nd ARC also agrees with this view.
  6. To address the problem of coalition partners changing loyalties midstream, there should be an agreed  common minimum program between the coalition partners. Realignment of coalition midway shall lead to the disqualification of members. Constitution shall be amended for the purpose.
  7. The Election Commission has to be provided with more powers under MCC so that MCC is effectively implemented. Also the appointment of CEC and other EC shall be by president of India on the recommendations of a collegium and the constitution has to be amended accordingly.
  8. Other issues like bringing awareness among people about the importance of Elections, special benches to quicken the process of justice for the members of parliament and state legislatures and bringing of political parties under RTI should be done immediately.

These changes would go a long way in addressing the issue of falling values in electoral politics and will  herald an era of good governance leading to strengthening and disciplining our democracy

January 22, 2016
  • himanshu singh charan

    thanks sir please made some another such vedio on ARC AND ECO. SURVEY

  • dheeraj gupta

    Thanks a lot for this video. Please cover all the chapters of ARC, it will also help in Optional

  • surbhee

    thank you this video sir. Please complete the series!!

  • Civils_Aspirant

    Sir please continue this ARC series 🙂

  • Aditya

    Sir, when will you release the next video on Ethics and Governance report?

  • Aayush Kumar

    Kindly review sir.

  • suryateja

    Please review.
    Word Count: 235

    The current state of Indian politics poses a grave challenge to the relevance of democracy in India. With many men and women with integrity and intellect unable to opt or compete in the political scene , due to manifestation of corruption in its highest form , the reform in the existing electoral process is imperative. The 2nd ARC recommendations provides a way forward in this context. The steps include:

    a. Election funding-A system of limited state funding should be introduced to reduce the scope of illegitimate funds. Also a robust monitoring system need to be in place to identify malicious funds.

    b. Judicial oversight- Special tribunals should be set up to expedite the resolution of election petitions.

    c. Barring entry of criminals into politics- Any candidate charged with a criminal offense by an an inquiry commission , after verifying available evidence, should deemed disqualified until he or she clears their name.

    d. Political parties under RTI- Since political parties influence public life in innumerable ways , it is necessary to bring them into the the Ambit of RTI to ensure accountability and remove opacity in their functioning.

    However , any reform in electoral is successful only if the prevailing cynicism about politics is removed from the minds of the public. This can only be possible with adequate awareness and certainty in Justice delivery , where currently India is largely underperforming than its democratic peers.

  • Mns UD

    Indian Democracy is a representative democracy at most of the levels of political executive (except at gram sabha level). these representatives get the power on the behalf of the people & in turn they govern the people. so it is important that quality of political representatives should of high standards so that the governance is of proper ethical framework and the voters also get the better choices to choose. so various steps can be taken in making the election process relevant to indian democracy which is facing various challenges with respect to election process. of politics: amending RP Act 1951 , to disqualify the persons facing charges of heinous crimes such as murder, rape, corruption.
    2.internal politics within the parties. like presidential primary elections U.S.A.
    3.transparent funding of political parties: proper maintainence, auditng & publication of accounts of P.P.
    recent recomendations of CIC over inclusion of political parties within the ambit of RTI act 2005 should be looked on. CORPORATE funding should be restricted, a partial state funding can be initiated with proper caution & regulatory framework in order to prevent bias & misuse of tax payre money.
    4.stronger anti-defection law in order to maintain political stability & neutrality in its use: amending the law to curb coalition instability by including coalition alliances under the ambit of the law. disqualification under the law should be done by president or governor on the basis of advisory of EC.
    5.APPOINTMENT of CEC & EC’s should be done by a collegium to maintain sanity of ELECTION COMMISSION.
    6.Early & quick disposal of election petition by having special benches . so that voters & contesting candidates faith remains in EC.
    7.Proper awareness among the voters by indulging civil society , public figures & celebrities to increase participation of people in election process & move away from caste & communal politics.
    clean electoral process is imperative for overall succes of democracy in india

  • Neenu

    Sir plz review

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