La Excellence IAS Academy

Cabinet Nod to spectrum for railways without TRAI reply

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Geography

Topic: Trade/Transport/Communication.

Issue: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

Context: The Union Cabinet approved Indian Railways’ request for 5 MHz of wireless spectrum for real-time data transmission to enhance passenger safety.

Prelims Connect – Institution in News:


·                     Established under the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, regulates India’s telecommunications sector.

·                     Composition: It consists of a Chairperson and up to four members appointed by the Central Government.

·                     Its functions:

      •    making recommendations,
      •    fixing tariffs,
      •    handling regulatory matters.

·                     Though TRAI’s recommendations are not binding, the government must seek its input on certain telecom issues.

·                     TRAI can receive binding directions from the government.

·                     TRAI also has the authority to notify telecom service rates and established the Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) through a 2000 amendment.

Source: The Hindu

Meet HAPS: India’s very own UAV that fly 20 km high and floats for months

Syllabus: GS-III

Subject: Science & Technology

Topic: Emerging Technologies.

Issue: High-Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS)

Context: The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) in Bengaluru conducted the first successful test flight of a solar-powered high-altitude pseudo satellite vehicle.


High-Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) is an advanced unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can enhance India’s surveillance capabilities in border regions.

Key Features:

·       Operates at altitudes of 18-20 km, above commercial airplanes altitude.

·        Powered by solar energy.

·        Capable of extended flight durations, similar to satellite functionality.

·        Launches without a rocket, reducing costs significantly compared to traditional satellites.


·         Beneficial in disaster response efforts.

·         Provides mobile communication networks in remote areas.

·         Supports continuous surveillance of border regions for heightened security.

Source: Indian Express

Polygamy in India: what the data show

Syllabus: GS-I

Subject: Society and Social Justice.  

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society

Issue: Polygamy in India.

Context: The Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly passed the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Bill, 2024 aimed to bring uniformity in personal laws governing marriage, divorce, and inheritance across communities in the state (excluding few communities).

Synopsis :

  • Government data on polygamy is sourced from the census and the National Family Health Survey (NFHS).
  • Both sources have limitations, with the census relying on indirect inference and the NFHS having a smaller sample size.
Polygamy in India:

It refers to marriage between one person and two or more spouses simultaneously and includes types such as polygyny, polyandry, and bigamy.

Legal Provisions:

  • The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 abolished Hindu polygamy and criminalized it.
  • The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act of 1936 outlawed bigamy.
  • Under the Muslim Personal Law Application Act (Shariat) of 1937, polygamy is not prohibited and is recognized as a religious practice.
  • The Indian Penal Code (IPC) penalizes bigamy or polygamy with imprisonment for up to seven years and a fine.
  • Article 44 of the Indian Constitution strives for a Uniform Civil Code for all citizens.Top of FormTop of Form















Source: Indian Express

Can the preamble be amended keeping the date intact, asks SC.

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Polity

Topic: Preamble

Issue: Amendment of Preamble.

Context: A bench of Justices asked a former Rajya Sabha MP who has sought the deletion of the words “Socialist” and “Secular” from the preamble of the Constitution.

  • The Preamble was amended once in December 1976 to introduce the words ‘socialist’ and ‘secular’.
  • The amendment was made through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment during the Emergency, replacing the phrase “unity of the nation” with “unity and integrity of the nation.”

+1 Advantage for Mains:

Relevant Judgements:

  • Berubari Union Case (1960): Supreme Court ruled Preamble not part of Constitution, thus unamendable.
  • Kesavananda Bharati Case (1973): SC clarified Preamble is part of Constitution, amendable if basic structure preserved.
  • Union Govt Vs LIC of India Case (1995): SC reiterated Preamble integral but not directly enforceable.
  • 2021: Former Minister KJ Alphons introduced bill to amend Preamble, suggesting ongoing debate over its amendment.



Source: The Hindu

U.S China tussle, warships in the Indian Ocean dominate IOC conference

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Agreements involving India and /or affecting India’s Interest.

Issue: Indian Ocean Conference


The External Affairs Minister of India attended the 7th Indian Ocean Conference in Perth, Australia.

About IOC:

  • The Indian Ocean Conference (IOC) is a flagship consultative forum of the Indian Ocean countries to deliberate on the regional cooperation for Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR).
  • Started in 2016, the conference, organized annually by the Ministry of External Affairs and the India Foundation.
  • The theme of the 7th conference was ‘Towards a Stable and Sustainable Indian Ocean’.

Source: The Hindu

RS passes Bills to add Pahari’s, and Valmiki to ST, and SC lists in J&K.

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Polity

Topic: Legal Issues

Issue: Alteration of lists of SC/ST’s.

Context: The Rajya Sabha passed the Constitution (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) Orders (Amendment) Bill, 2024.

Key Provisions of the bill:

  • It aims to modify the list of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Odisha.
  • Communities added to the Scheduled Tribes list include Muka Dora, Mooka Dora, Nuka Dora, Nooka Dora, Konda Reddy, and Konda Reddi in specific districts.
  • Tamadia and Tamudia communities are removed from the Scheduled Castes list and added to the Scheduled Tribes list in Odisha.
  • Synonyms or phonetic variations for certain communities are included in the Scheduled Tribes list in Odisha.

Prelims Connect:

Procedure for Inclusion/Exclusion:

  • Communities in the Scheduled Tribes or Scheduled Castes list require Presidential assent to a bill that amends the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950, and the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950.

Articles in The News:

  • Article 342(1): It grants the President authority to specify tribes or tribal communities within any State or Union Territory, following consultation with the Governor and through public notification.
  • Article 342(2): It empowers Parliament to legislate the inclusion or exclusion of tribes or tribal communities from the list specified under Article 342(1). Once notified, changes cannot be altered arbitrarily by subsequent notifications.

Source: The Hindu

Daily Editorials

If the Sun doesn’t shine

Syllabus: GS-III

Subject: Economy

Topic: Infrastructure

Issue: Renewable energy (RE)

Growth of Renewable energy (RE) in India: growth in RE capacities has been helped by..

  1. A must run status: evacuation of power from solar power plants and wind power plants should not be stopped except for safety related reasons.
  2. Late payment surcharge
  3. Inter-state transmission system charge waiver
  4. Renewable purchase obligations
  5. reduction in capital costs
  6. entry of foreign investors

Challenges to the sector:

  1. Peak demands
  2. storage facilities

Way forward:

  1. production linked incentive (PLI) scheme and
  2. viability gap funding (VGF) for battery energy storage systems
  3. selling excess generation to commercial and industrial consumers or to power exchanges
  4. more vibrant and deep power exchange markets
  5. storage solutions

Prelims Connect:

Production Linked Incentive Scheme (PLI): is an initiative that provides incentives to domestic industries to boost local production.

The Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Scheme aims at supporting infrastructure projects that are economically justified but fall marginally short of financial viability.

Source: Indian Express

BITS in Pieces

Syllabus: GS-III

Subject: Economy

Topic: Trade and External sector

Issue: Bilateral Investment Treaties

  • Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) are agreements between two countries for the mutual promotion and protection of investments in each other’s territories, by individuals and companies.
  • The first BIT signed by India was with the UK in 1994.
  • Challenges faced by India w.r.t. BITs:
    • Multiple investor vs state disputes at international arbitration centers.
    • Burden on the public exchequer.
  • This led to the adoption of the 2016 model BIT.
  • The 2016 model:
    • it was seen more as a protectionist measure rather than a nuanced and calibrated approach to encouraging foreign investment.
    • Major trade principles such as “fair and equitable treatment” and “most favored nation” were absent.
  • In 2021, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs made several recommendations to revisit the existing BIT regime.
  • Conclusion: Robust international trade and stable investments will be critical to India’s goal of a $5-trillion economy.
Prelims Connect:

Most-favoured-nation (MFN): Under the WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. This principle is known as most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment.