La Excellence IAS Academy

Warmer winter impacts ice hockey, Chadar trek in the country’s coldest region of Ladakh.

Syllabus: GS-I

Subject: Geography

Topic: Geographical features and their location changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps).

Context: The unusually warm winter has impacted extreme winter sports like ice hockey and Chadar trek in the cold desert mountains of Ladakh.

Factors attributed for warm winter:

  1. Declining trend of Western disturbances, which are large eastward-moving rain-bearing wind systems in recent times.
  2. El Nino impact – unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
  3. Climate Change and rising temperatures.

Conclusion: Winter tourism destinations like Gulmarg have also witnessed no snowfall this winter affecting the agriculture and economy of the region.

Source: The Hindu

Andhra becomes 2nd State to take up ‘caste census’.

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Indian Polity

Topic: Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States.

Context: Andhra Pradesh government kicked off its comprehensive caste census to enumerate all communities in the State.

Caste Census:

Enumerating the population based on their caste and sub-caste alongside other demographic details.

Benefits Issues / Concerns:
Identifying disadvantaged groups Complex task and prone to errors
Addressing social inequality Potential misuse for political gain or social discrimination.
Policy formulation- evidence-based policymaking Social tensions and divisions
Historical and sociological insights Legality is questioned



  • Introduced in 1881 and continued till the 1931 census.
  • Independent India’s governments abandoned full caste enumeration on the apprehension that
  • it would strengthen caste divisions and perpetuate the caste system.

Even the OBC reservation, which was based on the Mandal Commission report, had extrapolated from the caste/community-wise population figures of the 1931 census and estimated OBCs to be 52% of India’s population.

Bihar Caste census:

  • The Bihar government conducted a two-phase caste-based survey in 2023.
  • However a PIL was filed because only the Union government can undertake a census, as per the Union List of the Seventh Schedule and Census Act, 1948.
  • The Patna High Court upheld the validity of the survey and held that the state government is competent to conduct caste-based surveys.

Statements (Mains): “There is equality only among equals. To equate unequal is to perpetuate inequality.” – B.P Mandal Commission.

Source: The Hindu

Reforms led to India’s success in sports: PM Modi

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Governance

Topic: Government Policies and Interventions in various sectors.

Context: PM Modi inaugurated sixth edition of the Khelo India Youth Games in Chennai.


  • Khelo India and the Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS) were mentioned.
  • In this edition, the statue of Tiruvalluvar is used as the Games’ logo and ‘Veera Mangai’ Velu Nachiyar as the mascot.


Khelo India:

  • Introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grass-root level by building a strong framework for all sports.

Target Olympic Podium Scheme(TOPS):

  • To provide financial and logistical support to elite Indian athletes with the potential to win medals at the Olympic Games.

Persons In News(Prelims)

  • Thiruvalluvar was a Tamil poet and philosopher best known for his work Thirukkural, a collection of 1330 couplets that deal with ethics, politics, economics, and love.
  • Velu Nachiyar was the queen of Sivaganga estate between 1780–1790. She was the first Indian queen to wage war with the East India Company in India and was called Veera Mangai (“brave woman”).

Source: The Hindu

Pakistan tells Iran it wants to build trust after tit-for-tat strikes

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Global issues

Issue: Iran-Pakistan Mutual Trust Co-operation.

Context: Pakistan and Iran have affirmed a commitment to “mutual trust and cooperation” and prioritize closer collaboration on security issues.


  • Pakistan, Iran exchange striked amid Israel-Hamas war, sparking regional instability concerns.
  • While Pakistan targeted Baloch separatists, Iran struck Jaish al Adl militants.
  • Balochistan and Sistan-Baluchestan face ongoing insurgencies, and are underdeveloped.

Conclusion: Evolving Middle East dynamics prompt India to rethink security assumptions in the region.

Places in News (Prelims)

Source: Indian Express