La Excellence IAS Academy

Australia Remain Little India’s Total Exports To Australia Remain Little Changed After Trade Pact: Govt. Data.


Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Context: India’s exports to Australia slightly dropped year-on-year from January to November post the India-Australia Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement (ECTA) in December 2022.


  • India’s exports to Australia slightly dipped due to reduced petroleum exports. However, certain sectors, including engineering, electronics, apparel, and pharmaceuticals, saw growth.
  • Government officials praised ECTA for increased exports in key areas like engineering and pharmaceuticals. Australia’s FDI in India rose significantly from $30-40 million to $300 million.
  • Ongoing negotiations aim to expand the trade deal, with discussions on rules of origin next month. Agricultural exports from Australia to India, including sheep meat and seafood, surged by 50%.
  • ECTA brought duty reductions, with zero import duty on 51% of Australia’s tariff lines and 3,185 tariff lines from December 2022. India offers preferential access to Australia on over 70% of its tariff lines.


  • India-Australia ECTA Overview:
    • ECTA provides preferential market access for India on 100% of its tariff lines, while Australia benefits on over 70% of its tariff lines.
    • The agreement includes extended post-study work visas for Indian STEM graduates.
    • Facilitating trade, it grants zero-duty access to 96% of India’s exports to Australia and 85% of Australia’s exports to India.
    • By providing zero-duty access to 85% of Australian products, ECTA enables cost-effective raw materials for Indian industries, enhancing competitiveness.

    The agreement helps dispel perceptions of India as ‘protectionist,’ fostering openness to global business.

Conclusion: Australia reported gains, with industrial exports to India increasing by around 30%, including pharmaceuticals and wood. The Australian Minister for Trade and Tourism emphasized the need to invest in and strengthen the trade relationship.

Source: Indian Express

ULFA Faction Signs Peace Agreement, Shah Hails It As A Golden Day For Assam

Syllabus: GS-II;

Subject: Security;

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

Context:  The Indian government, the Assam state government, and a key faction of the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) signed a tripartite peace agreement.


Provisions of The Deal:

  • A committee would be formed for its monitoring.
  • The 97 out of 126 Assembly seats would be reserved for indigenous people and the future delimitation exercise would follow this principle. ( will address the demand of political insecurity)
  • Assam stands to gain significant development projects, including an Indian Institute of Management (IIM), new railway lines, and national highways totalling around ₹5 lakh crore.
  • It prevents outsiders from acquiring land within a 5km radius of iconic structures in the state.
  • A pivotal moment ended Assam’s prolonged violence, paving the way for a prosperous era.
  • The pro-talks group, led by Arabinda Rajkhowa, vowed to abandon violence, dissolve the organization, and engage in democratic processes.
  • The hard-line faction, led by Paresh Baruah, refrained from the agreement.


  • ULFA: The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) is a separatist militant organization that was formed in 1979 to achieve an independent state for the Assamese people in Assam.


  • The group’s original name was the “Secret Seven” and it was formed by students who were dissatisfied with the Indian government’s policies towards the state of Assam.
  • The region’s tea, coal and oil economy attracted migrants from all over, the indigenous population started to feel insecure, further exacerbated by partition and mass exodus of refugees from erstwhile east Pakistan.
  • The competition for resources resulted in a six-year long mass movement.
  • Assam Accord of 1985: Aimed to address concerns about foreigners but fell short, leading to ULFA’s formation as a response to unresolved issues.
  • Operation Bajrang and AFSPA in 1990 were launched by the Govt in response to ULFA armed conflict.

Source: Indian Express