India risking demographic dividend.

Syllabus: GS-I, Subject: Geography, Topic: Population and Migration, Issue: Demographic Dividend.

Context: World Bank warns South Asia, including India, failing to utilize demographic dividend.

Prime concerns:

  • Job creation lags behind working-age population growth.
  • India’s employment growth below average for 2000-2023, with the employment ratio declining second only to Nepal.
  • Region could achieve 16% higher output growth with better employment rates.
  • Weak employment trends in non-agricultural sectors due to institutional and economic challenges.

Recommendations include supporting women’s participation, increasing access to finance, trade openness, easing financial regulations, and improving education.

Demographic dividend:

●       Economic growth potential from age structure changes.

●       Arises when the working-age population (15-64) exceeds dependents.

●       Leads to increased productivity, savings, and investment.

●       Requires employment opportunities, education, and skill development for full realization.

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