Discuss the strategic importance of Africa in fulfilling India’s vision for the Global South and reshaping the architecture of global governance.


In this era of geopolitical competition and realignment, India’s multifaceted relationship with African nations is poised for a fundamental transformation. As India’s aspirations for the Global South take shape, leveraging historical partnerships with African countries remains imperative.


  • Introduce your answer by highlighting India’s ambition for a more inclusive Global South and the need for reforming global governance.
  • In the main body, discuss Africa’s role in realizing India’s Global South vision through demographic potential, resources, strategic partnerships, etc. Next address Africa’s pivotal position in transforming global governance by focusing on international reforms, sustainable development collaboration, etc.
  • Conclude by emphasizing the synergy between India and Africa as pivotal for a fair global order, underscoring South-South cooperation.


India envisions a world order that is more inclusive, equitable, and representative, particularly for the nations of the Global South. This vision seeks to address the historical imbalances and ensure that developing countries have a stronger voice in global forums, including international economic and financial institutions. India’s approach includes championing sustainable development, combating climate change, ensuring fair trade practices, and advocating for peace and security. This ambition extends to reshaping the architecture of global governance to reflect the contemporary realities of the 21st century, where emerging economies play a pivotal role.

Importance of Africa in Fulfilling India’s Vision for the Global South:

  • Demographic Dividend and Market Potential: Africa’s young and growing population presents a significant opportunity for India in terms of markets for Indian products and as a destination for Indian investment in various sectors, including agriculture, technology, and manufacturing.
    • Africa’s population is expected to double by 2050.
  • Natural Resources and Energy Cooperation: Africa’s rich endowment of natural resources, including oil, minerals, and renewable energy sources, is crucial for India’s energy security and economic growth. Collaborative projects in energy extraction and renewable energy can bolster India’s energy supplies while aiding in Africa’s development.
    • India imports oil from Nigeria and Angola.
  • Strategic and Maritime Security: Africa’s strategic location along key maritime routes is vital for India’s security, particularly in the Indian Ocean Region. Collaborative efforts in maritime security, anti-piracy operations, and ensuring freedom of navigation are beneficial for both regions.
    • The India-Africa Defence Dialogue and joint naval exercises.
  • Development Cooperation and Capacity Building: India shares its developmental experience with African nations through training, technical assistance, and concessional loans.
    • Indian social enterprises and NGOs are exporting low-cost, scalable solutions, from eco-friendly houses to rural women solar engineers.
  • Diplomatic and Cultural Ties: The historical and cultural ties between India and Africa foster a deep understanding and mutual respect. These ties are leveraged to enhance diplomatic relations and cultural exchange, promoting unity among Global South countries.
  • Supporting Africa’s Agenda 2063: India supports Africa’s own developmental blueprint, Agenda 2063, which aligns with the Global South’s aspirations for prosperity and integration.
    • India’s initiatives in digital transformation, health, and education sectors in Africa are aligned with Agenda 2063’s goals.

Importance of Africa in Reshaping the Architecture of Global Governance:

  • Advocating for Reform in International Institutions: Africa’s 54 countries represent a substantial bloc in international organizations, such as the UN, giving the continent significant leverage to influence global decision-making processes and advocate for reforms that make them more democratic and reflective of today’s geopolitical realities.
    • Both have called for reforms in the United Nations Security Council.
  • Championing the Interests of the Developing World: Africa, with its vast majority of developing countries, is at the forefront of advocating for the interests of the Global South in global governance, emphasizing issues like sustainable development, climate justice, and equitable economic growth.
    • Demanding fairer climate finance terms and support for adaptation and mitigation efforts.
  • Joint Efforts in Climate Change Mitigation: Africa’s vast renewable energy potential and India’s expertise in renewable technologies can spearhead global efforts in combating climate change.
    • The International Solar Alliance, has seen significant participation from African countries.
  • Strengthening Multilateralism: By aligning their positions in international forums, India and Africa can promote a multilateral world order that respects the sovereignty and developmental aspirations of all nations.
    • Collaborations in the Non-Aligned Movement and the G77 have underscored the commitment to multilateralism.
  • Counter-Terrorism and Security Cooperation: With both regions facing the challenges of terrorism and security threats, India and Africa can collaborate on intelligence sharing, counter-terrorism operations, and peacekeeping.
    • India has been an active contributor to UN peacekeeping missions in Africa, demonstrating its commitment to the continent’s security and stability.

Strengthening the partnership between India and Africa not only benefits both regions but also contributes significantly to the global pursuit of peace, prosperity, and stability. It will be a cornerstone in the construction of a balanced and fair world order, epitomizing the spirit of South-South cooperation and mutual respect.

‘+1’ Value Addition:

  • Indian investments in Africa reached $98 billion in 2023, with trade totalling $100 billion.
  • Forty-two African countries are the second-largest recipients of all credit extended by India. Around 200 developmental projects have been completed in the region.
  • Africa, with 30 per cent of the world’s mineral reserves, is vital to power the energy transition.
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