Evaluate the effectiveness of direct income support schemes versus price support mechanisms like MSP in ensuring farmers’ welfare. Analyze the implications of implementing a legal guarantee for MSP.


One of the principal demands from the protesting farmers is for the Union government to enact legislation that guarantees MSP.


  • Introduce your answer by briefly defining Direct Income Support Schemes and Price Support Mechanisms like MSP and also highlight their goal to stabilize farmers’ incomes and welfare.
  • In the main body, discuss their effectiveness by comparing their coverage, market impact, income security, flexibility, equity, administrative efficiency, etc. Next discuss the implications of a legal guarantee for MSP by highlighting its pros (income security, credit access, etc.) and cons (fiscal burden, limited coverage, uneven implementation, reduced export competitiveness, etc.).
  • Conclude by suggesting a balanced approach combining both schemes with agricultural reforms for sustainable, inclusive farmer welfare.


Direct income support schemes, like the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN), provide direct cash transfers to farmers, aiming to supplement their income. Price support mechanisms, notably the Minimum Support Price (MSP), are government-set prices at which it purchases crops from farmers, ensuring them a minimum profit margin for their harvest. Both approaches aim to stabilize farmers’ incomes and safeguard their welfare.

Effectiveness of Direct Income Support Schemes Versus Price Support Mechanisms like MSP:

Criteria Direct Income Support Schemes Price Support Mechanisms (MSP)
Coverage Broad, covering all farmers regardless of the crops they cultivate, including those growing non-MSP crops. Limited to crops under MSP, benefiting farmers who produce these specific crops.
Market Impact Minimal direct market distortion, allowing market forces to determine crop prices and farmers to respond to market signals. Stabilizes market prices for MSP-covered crops, but may skew farming decisions, disregarding market demand.
Income Security Provides a safety net against both price and yield risks. Primarily addresses price risk, with limited impact on yield risk.
Flexibility Provides flexibility in usage of funds by beneficiaries for any agricultural or non-agricultural needs. Tied to production of certain crops, possibly discouraging crop diversification.
Equity Can be designed to target the most vulnerable farmers, including small, marginal, and tenant farmers. May disproportionately benefit larger farmers or those in regions with better access to MSP procurement.
Administrative Efficiency Administratively efficient with direct bank transfers, reducing the opportunities for leakage or corruption. Requires significant government intervention for procurement and distribution, which can be complex, costly and susceptible to corruption.
Quality and Standardization Does not directly influence production quality or standards. Encourages quality production through defined criteria for MSP procurement.


Implications of Implementing a Legal Guarantee for MSP:


  • Income Security: Farming is fraught with risks from unpredictable weather and pests. Legal MSP acts as insurance, offering price assurance, making agriculture a more stable and viable profession.
  • Credit Access: Financial institutions are more inclined to extend credit to farmers under a guaranteed MSP regime, as it assures repayment capacity.
    • Higher investment in agriculture enhances the productivity.
  • Safeguard Against Exploitation: MSP protects small and marginal farmers from exploitation by middlemen, ensuring fair compensation.
  • Rural Economy Stimulation: MSP channels money into rural economies, supporting local businesses and services by boosting farmers’ spending power.


  • Enormous Fiscal Burden: due to mandatory nature of procurement and also due to escalating storage and wastage costs.
  • Limited Coverage: The effectiveness of MSP is curtailed by its focus on a few crops like rice and wheat, leaving producers of other crops vulnerable.
    • Onion farmers suffer due to lack of MSP coverage.
  • Uneven Implementation: The impact of MSP varies across states, with some having robust systems and others lacking adequate procurement mechanisms.
    • While Punjab and Haryana have effective MSP procurement, states like Bihar struggle, rendering MSP ineffective.
  • Inadequate Price Determination: MSP calculations often fail to fully account for farmers’ costs, making the support inadequate.
    • Swaminathan Committee recommended MSP be set at least 50% more than the C2 cost of production.
  • Monoculture Encouragement: MSP tends to promote the cultivation of certain crops over others, leading to environmental issues like soil degradation.
    • The focus on MSP for rice and wheat has contributed to groundwater depletion in Punjab.
  • Reduced Export Competitiveness: Higher MSP could make Indian agricultural produce more expensive in international markets, as seen with rice and wheat.

A balanced approach, integrating elements of both direct support and MSP, along with comprehensive agricultural reforms, may offer a more sustainable and inclusive solution to ensuring farmers’ welfare in India.Top of Form

‘+1’ Value Addition:

  • Price Deficiency Payments (PDP) involves paying farmers the difference between the market price and MSP, avoiding physical government purchases or stocking of crops.
  • It has been implemented in Madhya Pradesh’s Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana and Haryana’s Bhavantar Bharpai Yojana.
  • Nationwide Price Deficiency Payments, blending physical procurement with Price Deficiency Payments, could ensure MSP delivery without market distortion, promoting crop diversification.
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