New treatments are emerging for type-1 diabetes

Syllabus: GS-III

Subject: Science & Technology

Topic: Medical science and Health,

Issue: Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes:

Islets of Langerhans are tiny clusters of specialised cells nestled within the pancreas.

They play a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels by producing hormones like insulin and glucagon.

The islets are composed of beta cells that produce insulin.

Insulin helps cells absorb glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream, lowering blood sugar levels.


  • Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
  • Emerging treatments are trying to replace beta cells in the body by transplantation from human donors.

Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Feature Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes
Cause Autoimmune attack on insulin-producing cells Insulin deficiency or body’s resistance to insulin
Onset Usually rapid, often in childhood Gradual, usually in adults
Symptoms More pronounced: increased thirst, urination, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision May be mild or absent: increased thirst, urination, fatigue
Treatment Requires lifelong insulin Varies: lifestyle changes, medications, insulin (sometimes)
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