Water, an instrument to build world peace

Syllabus: GS I, Subject: Geography, Topic: Resources – World and India, Issue: Water resource

Water crisis in India:


  • Rapid urbanization, industrialization, unsustainable agricultural practices, and climate change..
  • Agriculture accounts for 72% of water withdrawals.
  • Perennial rivers and streams are drying up, affecting water availability.
  • Siltation in reservoirs and water bodies reduces storage capacity and efficacy.
  • Increased tube well density leads to groundwater depletion surpassing recharge.
  • Pollution from sewage and other sources deteriorates water quality.

The way ahead:

  • Rainwater harvesting for enhancing water quantity and quality.
  • Emphasis on programs like ‘per drop more crop’ and ‘Gaon ka pani gaon mein’.
  • Revival of ponds and water bodies, along with monitoring groundwater levels.


+1 advantage for mains (Data points)

●         According to the World Resources Institute, 17 countries, including India, face extremely high water stress.

●         In Punjab, Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana, groundwater consumption to availability ratio is 172%, 137%, 137% and 133%.

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