What Maryam spoke about: Punjabiyat, cultural bonds that tie India, Pak Punjabs

Syllabus: GS-II, Subject: International relations, Topic: India and its neighborhood, Issue: Paradiplomacy


  • Paradiplomacy refers to subnational exchanges that aid relations between nations.
  • Punjabiyat, or shared Punjabi identity, has historically facilitated Indo-Pak relations.

Paradiplomacy at work:

  • Leaders from Punjab, India, and Punjab, Pakistan, have engaged in various exchanges to promote ties.
  • Initiatives include visits, sports events, and trade discussions between leaders of both Punjabs.
  • The Attari-Wagah land route, opened in 2005, facilitated trade between India and Pakistan.
  • The route was closed in 2019 but there is mutual interest in reopening it for trade.
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