Eliminating diseases, one region at a time

Syllabus: GS III, Subject: Science and Technology, Topic: Medical science and Health, Issue: Vaccine Administration in India

Context: Reports indicate that guinea worm disease is close to eradication.

Disease elimination:

  • Disease elimination aims at stopping transmission in a defined region, while eradication permanently eliminates a pathogen with no risk of reintroduction.

Significance of disease elimination certification:

  • Enhances public health, energizes the health system, and improves primary care, diagnostics, and surveillance.
  • Encourages preparedness and attracts international support.
  • Increase involvement of field staff and community health workers, with high political and bureaucratic commitment and public support.

The way ahead

  • Careful planning, considering costs, benefits, and political support.
  • Prioritizing pathogens with high impact and low prevalence.
  • Essential investments in surveillance, laboratories, workforce training, monitoring.
  • Localized and phased strategies.
  • Multisectoral collaboration and resource redeployment.
+1 Advantage for mains(Data point)

●        Kala azar is now confined to five Indian states.

●        Ending malaria, tuberculosis, and Neglected Tropical Diseases by 2030 is a SDG.

●        Guinea Worms, with no known medicines or vaccines, will be the second disease eradicated after smallpox.

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