Why green hydrogen presents both major opportunities, significant challenges

Syllabus: GS-III, Subject: Environment, Ecology and Disaster Management, Topic: Renewable Energy, Issue: Green Hydrogen

Context: The Government has announced a scheme to support efforts to test the viability of green hydrogen as a fuel for cars and heavy vehicles.

Details of the scheme-

  • The MNRE scheme aims to
  • Validate green hydrogen as a transportation fuel,
  • Evaluate economic viability, and
  • Demonstrate safe operation of hydrogen-powered vehicles and refueling stations.
  • The Ministry of Road Transport will appoint a scheme implementation agency.
  • Viability gap funding (VGF) based on project appraisal committee recommendations.


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Challenges to the large-scale use of green hydrogen in the transportation sector:

  • Prohibitive production costs , storage and transportation challenges.
  • Competitive challenge from battery electric vehicles.
  • Building hydrogen truck fueling stations is considerably more expensive than battery electric truck stations.
  • Hydrogen’s flammability requires robust safety standards for handling and storage.
  • Advancements in battery technologies may pose long-term viability challenges for green hydrogen-powered commercial vehicles.
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