Independence of judiciary rests on freedom of judges to decide without pressure.

Syllabus: GS-II

Subject: Judiciary and Tribunals

Topic: Independence of Judiciary

Issue: Supreme Court-Diamond Jubilee

Context: The Supreme Court celebrated its Diamond Jubilee this year-75 years since the first sitting on January 28, 1950.

Supreme Court of India:


  • Regulating Act of 1773,provided for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta.
  • Government of India Act 1935 provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, set up in 1937.
  • Article 124 provided for the establishment and constitution of the Supreme Court.

Three principles which are the foundation for the Supreme Court according to the first CJI H.J.Kania(Mains)

  1. Independence of judiciary
  2. The interpretation of the Constitution not as a rigid body of rules but as a living organism.
  3. To secure and retain the respect of citizens for the Supreme Court.

Criticism of being a “Polyvocal court”

  • A polyvocal court is where different judges can express diverse and sometimes conflicting opinions on legal matters.
  • Criticised as it leads to confusion and uncertainty.
  • However, CJI Chandrachud says polyvocality is a strength , as it brings together diversity and respect of inclusion, resulting in a synthesis of ideas.
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