ULFA Faction Signs Peace Agreement, Shah Hails It As A Golden Day For Assam

Syllabus: GS-II;

Subject: Security;

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

Context:  The Indian government, the Assam state government, and a key faction of the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) signed a tripartite peace agreement.


Provisions of The Deal:

  • A committee would be formed for its monitoring.
  • The 97 out of 126 Assembly seats would be reserved for indigenous people and the future delimitation exercise would follow this principle. ( will address the demand of political insecurity)
  • Assam stands to gain significant development projects, including an Indian Institute of Management (IIM), new railway lines, and national highways totalling around ₹5 lakh crore.
  • It prevents outsiders from acquiring land within a 5km radius of iconic structures in the state.
  • A pivotal moment ended Assam’s prolonged violence, paving the way for a prosperous era.
  • The pro-talks group, led by Arabinda Rajkhowa, vowed to abandon violence, dissolve the organization, and engage in democratic processes.
  • The hard-line faction, led by Paresh Baruah, refrained from the agreement.


  • ULFA: The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) is a separatist militant organization that was formed in 1979 to achieve an independent state for the Assamese people in Assam.
  • The group’s original name was the “Secret Seven” and it was formed by students who were dissatisfied with the Indian government’s policies towards the state of Assam.
  • The region’s tea, coal and oil economy attracted migrants from all over, the indigenous population started to feel insecure, further exacerbated by partition and mass exodus of refugees from erstwhile east Pakistan.
  • The competition for resources resulted in a six-year long mass movement.
  • Assam Accord of 1985: Aimed to address concerns about foreigners but fell short, leading to ULFA’s formation as a response to unresolved issues.
  • Operation Bajrang and AFSPA in 1990 were launched by the Govt in response to ULFA armed conflict.
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